Risk Assessment and Profiling of Co-occurring Contaminations with Mycotoxins

  • Lan Wang
  • Aibo WuEmail author


Food safety has generally remained a basic but compulsory needs to human beings, while ensuring the safety of foods has been a major focus of international and national actions. Humans can be externally and internally exposed to mycotoxin contaminations through a variety of routes, such as contaminations from the circumstantial environment, water, and food consumption. Among those mentioned exposure, food consumption is highly recognized as the main resource of human exposure to mycotoxin contaminations. More obviously, the direct exposure is almost through the consumption of contaminated cereal-based foods and animal-borne foods. Mycotoxin’s exposure evaluation through total diet studies (TDS) has been conducted in several countries worldwide.This chapter features an overview of occurrence and dietary exposure assessment through TDS studies of co-occurring mycotoxins in a variety of foods. Also, little progress via biomarker analysis in human urine had been made regarding to more accurate risk assessment via the so-called internal exposure assessment, likely on DON and ZEN for different populations in Europe and China.


Risk assessment Risk profiling Consumption data Exposure assessment Mycotoxins 


  1. Amézqueta S, González-Peñas E, Murillo-Arbizu M, Cerain ALD (2009) Ochratoxin a decontamination: a review. Food Control 20(4):326–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boevre MD, Jacxsens L, Lachat C, Eeckhout M, Mavungu JDD, Audenaert K, Maene P, Haesaert G, Kolsteren P, Meulenaer BD (2013) Human exposure to mycotoxins and their masked forms through cereal-based foods in Belgium. Toxicol Lett 218(3):281–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borg D, Lund BO, Lindquist NG, Håkansson H (2013) Cumulative health risk assessment of 17 perfluoroalkylated and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in the Swedish population. Environ Int 59(59C):112–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carballo D, Molto JC, Berrada H, Ferrer E (2018) Presence of mycotoxins in ready-to-eat food and subsequent risk assessment. Food Chem Toxicol 121:558–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. De Nijs M, Mengelers MJB, Boon PE et al (2016) Strategies for estimating human exposure to mycotoxins via food [J]. World Mycotoxin J 9(5):831–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Egan SK, Tao SSH, Pennington JAT, Bolger PM (2002) US food and drug administration’s total diet study: intake of nutritional and toxic elements, 1991-96. Food Addit Contam 19(2):103–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gonçalves KDM, Sibaja KVM, Feltrin ACP, Remedi RD, Garcia SDO, Garda-Buffon J (2018) Occurrence of aflatoxins B 1 and M 1 in milk powder and UHT consumed in the city of Assomada (Cape Verde Islands) and southern Brazil. Food Control 93:S0956713518302998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Han Z, Nie D, Ediage EN, Yang X, Wang J, Chen B, Li S, On SLW, Saeger SD, Wu A (2014) Cumulative health risk assessment of co-occurring mycotoxins of deoxynivalenol and its acetyl derivatives in wheat and maize: case study, Shanghai, China. Food Chem Toxicol 74:334–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Huong BTM, Le DT, Do TT, Madsen H, Brimer L, Dalsgaard A (2016a) Aflatoxins and fumonisins in rice and maize staple cereals in Northern Vietnam and dietary exposure in different ethnic groups. Food Control 70:191–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Huong BTM, Le DT, Tuan DH, Brimer L, Dalsgaard A (2016b) Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B 1, ochratoxin A and fuminisins of adultsin Lao Cai province, Viet Nam: a total dietary study approach. Food Chem Toxicol 98(Pt B):127–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Iqbal SZ, NISAR S, Asi MR, Jinap S (2014) Natural incidence of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in chicken meat and eggs. Food Control 43(8):98–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jin PG, Han Z, Cai ZX, Wu YJ, Ren YP (2010) Simultaneous determination of 10 mycotoxins in grain by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using 13C15-deoxynivalenol as internal standard. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 27(12):1701–1713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Juan C, Berrada H, Mañes J, Oueslati S (2017) Multi-mycotoxin determination in barley and derived products from Tunisia and estimation of their dietary intake. Food Chem Toxicol 103:148–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Khan SJ, Roser DJ, Davies CM, Peters GM, Stuetz RM, Tucker R, Ashbolt NJ (2008) Chemical contaminants in feedlot wastes: concentrations, effects and attenuation. Environ Int 34(6):839–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mally A (2012) Ochratoxin a and mitotic disruption: mode of action analysis of renal tumor formation by ochratoxin A. Toxicol Sci 127(2):315–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Marin S, Ramos AJ, Cano-Sancho G, Sanchis V (2013) Mycotoxins: occurrence, toxicology, and exposure assessment. Food Chem Toxicol 60(10):218–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nadira AF, Rosita J, Norhaizan ME, Redzwan SM (2016) Screening of aflatoxin M 1 occurrence in selected milk and dairy products in Terengganu, Malaysia. Food Control 73:209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ng J (2010) Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives seventy-second meeting: summary and conclusionsGoogle Scholar
  19. Palacios SA, Erazo JG, Ciasca B, Lattanzio VMT, Reynoso MM, Farnochi MC, Torres AM (2017) Occurrence of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in durum wheat from Argentina. Food Chem 230:728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Peter M, Kilic MA, Firdevs M, Ozlem O (2015) Contribution of organ vasculature in rat renal analysis for ochratoxin a: relevance to toxicology of nephrotoxins. Toxins 7(4):1005–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pinton P, Tsybulskyy D, Lucioli J, Laffitte J, Callu P, Lyazhri F, Grosjean F, Bracarense AP, Kolfclauw M, Oswald IP (2012) Toxicity of deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives on the intestine: differential effects on morphology, barrier function, tight junction proteins, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Toxicol Sci 130(1):180–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pittet A (1998) Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in foods and feeds – an updated review. Rev Med Vet 149(6):479–492Google Scholar
  23. Raad F, Nasreddine L, Hilan C, Bartosik M, Parentmassin D (2014) Dietary exposure to aflatoxins, ochratoxin a and deoxynivalenol from a total diet study in an adult urban Lebanese population. Food Chem Toxicol 73:35–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rodríguez-Carrasco Y, Mañes J, Berrada H, Juan C (2016) Development and validation of a LC-ESI-MS/MS method for the determination of alternaria toxins alternariol, alternariol methyl-ether and tentoxin in tomato and tomato-based products. Toxins 8(11):328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sarigiannis DA, Hansen U (2012) Considering the cumulative risk of mixtures of chemicals – a challenge for policy makers[J]. Environ Health 11(1 Supplement):S18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Schothorst RC, van Egmond HP (2004) Report from SCOOP task 3.2.10 “collection of occurrence data of Fusarium toxins in food and assessment of dietary intake by the population of EU member states”. Subtask: trichothecenes. Toxicol Lett 153(1):133–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Shuib NS, Makahleh A, Salhimi SM, Saad B (2017) Natural occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in fresh cow milk and human milk in Penang, Malaysia. Food Control 73:966–970CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sirot V, Fremy J-M, Leblanc J-C (2013) Dietary exposure to mycotoxins and health risk assessment in the second;French total diet study. Food Chem Toxicol 52(7):1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Soubra L, Sarkis D, Hilan C, Verger P (2009) Occurrence of total aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in foodstuffs available on the Lebanese market and their impact on dietary exposure of children and teenagers in Beirut. Food Addit Contamts A 26(2):189–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wang L, Zhang Q, Yan Z, Tan Y, Zhu R, Yu D, Yang H, Wu A (2018) Occurrence and quantitative risk assessment of twelve mycotoxins in eggs and chicken tissues in China. Toxins 10(11):477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Wang W, Ma JJ, Yu CC, Lin XH, Jiang HR, Shao B, Li FQ (2012) Simultaneous determination of masked deoxynivalenol and some important type B trichothecenes in Chinese corn kernels and corn-based products by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Agric Food Chem 60(46):11638–11646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wu F, Groopman JD, Pestka JJ (2014) Public health impacts of foodborne mycotoxins. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol 5(5):351–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zheng H, Nie D, Yang X, Wang J, Peng S, Wu A (2013) Quantitative assessment of risk associated with dietary intake of mycotoxin ochratoxin A on the adult inhabitants in Shanghai city of P.R. China. Food Control 32(2):490–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhu R, Zhao Z, Wang J, Bai B, Wu A, Yan L, Song S (2015) A simple sample pretreatment method for multi-mycotoxin determination in eggs by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr 1417:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CAS Key Laboratory of Nutrition, Metabolism and Food Safety, Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, Shanghai Institutes for Biological SciencesUniversity of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of SciencesShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations