Vulnerability of Autochthon Paharias of Santal Parganas: Revealing Continuity of Colonial Legacy

  • Dinesh Narayan Verma


This chapter traces the present situation of vulnerability of the Paharias, a PVTG in Jharkhand to the colonial policy. It discusses how Paharias were deprived of their resources and thus marginalized consequent upon colonial policy of expansion of settled agriculture. The colonial administration facilitated settlement of the Santals as agriculturists on the lands and forest of the Paharias as a part of their project of expanding settled agriculture. They receded to the hills and confined to traditional mode of livelihood. Their exclusion continued even in the process of national development. The chapter also highlights Paharias’ increasing awareness of their rights over land and other resources in the process of the present state-sponsored development; and identity assertion through their demands for these rights.


Vulnerable conditions Autochthon Paharias Damin-i-koh Colonial legacy Tradition Original inhabitants Settled agriculturists Historical injustice Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) 


  1. Ball, Valentine. 1980. Tribal and Peasant Life in Nineteenth Century India. Delhi: Usha. Originally it was published in 1880 under the title Jungle Life in India Or, The Journeys and Journals of an Indian Geologist. London: Thomas De la Rue & Co.Google Scholar
  2. Bradley-Birt, F.B. 1905. The Story of an Indian Upland. London: Smith Elder. Reprint of 1990 and renamed, History and Ethnology of an Indian Upland, New Delhi: Mittal Publications.Google Scholar
  3. Browne, James. 1788. India Tracts. London: Black Friars.Google Scholar
  4. Buchanan, Francis. 1939. An Account of the District of Bhagalpur in 1810–1811. Patna: Secretariat Printing.Google Scholar
  5. Carstairs, Robert. 1935. Harma’s Village. Pokharia, Manbhum: The Santal Mission Press.Google Scholar
  6. Dalton, E.T. 1872. Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal, Indian Studies: Past and Present. Calcutta: Superintendent, Government Printing Press. It is reprinted later under the title Tribal History of Eastern India, 1973. New Delhi: Cosmo Publication.Google Scholar
  7. Datta, K.K. 1940. The Santal Insurrection of 1855–57. Calcutta: University of Calcutta Press.Google Scholar
  8. Diwakar, R.R. 1959. Bihar Through the Ages. Calcutta: Orient Longman.Google Scholar
  9. Droese, Ernest. 1884. Introduction to the Malto Language. Agra: Secundra Orphanage Press.Google Scholar
  10. GoI. 2008–09. Annual Report 2008–09. New Delhi: Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Government of India.Google Scholar
  11. ———. 2011. Various census reports. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, New Delhi: Ministry of Home Affairs.Google Scholar
  12. GoJ. 2002–03. Primitive Tribal Group of Jharkhand, Survey Report (2002–2003). Ranchi: Jharkhand Tribal Welfare Research Institute, Ministry of Welfare, Government of Jharkhand.Google Scholar
  13. Grierson, G.A. 1906. Linguistic Survey of India: Munda and Dravidain Languages. Vol. IV. Calcutta: Superintendant of Government Printing.Google Scholar
  14. Heber, Reginald. 1827. Narratives of a Journey through the Upper Provinces of India from Calcutta to Bombay 1824–1825. London: John Murray.Google Scholar
  15. Houlton, John. 1949. Bihar: The Heart of India. Calcutta: Orient Longmans.Google Scholar
  16. Hunter, W.W. 1975. The Annals of Rural Bengal. Delhi: Cosmo Publications. First published in 1868 under the same title, London: Smith, Elder & Co.Google Scholar
  17. Kumar, Ranjan. 2013. Adim Janjatiyon ka Samajik aur Arthik Vikas:Sahibganj Jile ki Paharia Janjati Vishayak Adhyayan. Unpublished Ph,.D thesis, Dumka, Jharkhand: Sido Kanhu Murmu University.Google Scholar
  18. Lal, Gopal. 1985. Sauria Paharia. In Bihar Ke Adivasi, ed. L.P. Vidyarthi, 130–140. Patna: Shukla Book Depot.Google Scholar
  19. MacDoughall, John. 1985. Land or Religion. New Delhi: Manohar Publications.Google Scholar
  20. Man, E.G. 1867. Sonthalia and the Sonthals. Calcutta: Geo Wyman & Company.Google Scholar
  21. Martin, Robert Montgomery. 1838. History, Antiquities, Topography and Statistics of Eastern India. London: Wm. H. Allen and Co.Google Scholar
  22. McPherson, H. 1909. Final Report on the Survey and Settlement Operations in the District of Sonthal Parganas. Calcutta: Bengal Secretariat Book Depot.Google Scholar
  23. Mishra, Madan Kumar, and D.N. Verma. 2014. Jharkhand ki Janjatiyon ki Samsyaein aur Unka Samadhan evam Sujhav. Vanyajati LXII (1): 40–56.Google Scholar
  24. Nath, Sureshwar, and Dinesh Narayan Verma. 1990. Rajmahal (Rajmahal through the Ages). Barharwa (Sahibganj): Purnima Prakashan.Google Scholar
  25. ———. 1993. Paharia Janjati ka Sanchhipt Itihas. Barharwa (Sahibganj): Purnima Prakashan.Google Scholar
  26. ———. 1996. Quit India Movement and the Primitive Paharia Tribe of Bihar. The Quarterly Review of Historical Studies XXXV (3&4): 61–68. Calcutta: Institute of Historical Studies.Google Scholar
  27. O’Malley, L.S.S. 1910. Bihar District Gazetteers: Santal Parganas. Patna: The Bengal Secretariat Book Depot.Google Scholar
  28. Oldham, C.E.A.W. 1930. Journal of Francis Buchanan. Patna: Secretariat Press.Google Scholar
  29. Pal, Sudhir. ed. 2008. Jharkhand Encyclopaedia. Vol. 3. New Delhi: Vani Prakashan.Google Scholar
  30. Prasad, Saileshwar. 1970. The Maler of Rajmahal Hills-Ecology, Economy and Social Organisations. Vanyajati 18 (3): 121–125.Google Scholar
  31. Roy Choudhury, P.C. 1965. Bihar District Gazeetteers: Santal Parganas. Patna: The Superintendent, Secretariat Press.Google Scholar
  32. Sahu, Chaturbhuj. 2012. Jharkhand ki Janjatiyan. Allahabad: K. K. Publications.Google Scholar
  33. Sharma, B.C. 2014. Jharkhand ki Adim Janjatiyan. Ranchi: Jharkhand Jharokha.Google Scholar
  34. Sharma, Bimla Charan, and Vikram Kirti. 2006. Jharkhand ki Janjatiyan. Ranchi: Crown Publications.Google Scholar
  35. Shaw, Thomas. 1795. On the inhabitants of the hills near Rajmahal. Asiatic Researches IV: 45–107. Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal.Google Scholar
  36. Sherwill, Captain Walter Stanhope. 1851. Notes Upon a Tour through the Rajmahal Hills, 1851. Journal of Asiatic Society of Bengal 20 (3): 544–606.Google Scholar
  37. Singh, K.S. 1985. Tribal Society in India. New Delhi: Manohar Publications.Google Scholar
  38. Singh, Sunil Kr. 2006. Inside Jharkhand. Ranchi: Crown Publications.Google Scholar
  39. ———. 2009. Jharkhand Paridrishya. Ranchi: Crown Publications.Google Scholar
  40. Sutherland, H.C. 1819. Report on Management of Rajmahal Hills, 8th June 1819, paras 84 and 89. Dumka/Santal Parganas/Jharkhand: Deputy Commissioner’s Record Room.Google Scholar
  41. Tiwari, Rabindra Nath. 2002. The Autochthon Paharias on the Cross-roads. Unpublished Ph.D thesis, Dumka/Jharkhand: Sido Kanhu Murmu University.Google Scholar
  42. Umashankar. 1965. Santal Sanskar ki Ruprekha. Dumka: Maheshnarayan Sahitya Shodh Sansthan.Google Scholar
  43. Upadhyay, V.S., and Gaya Pandey. 2003. Tribal Development in India. Ranchi: Crown Publications.Google Scholar
  44. Verma, R.C. 1990. Indian Tribes through the Ages. New Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.Google Scholar
  45. Verma, D.N. 1996. The Autocththon Paharias through the Ages. Vanyajati XLIV (1): 10–15.Google Scholar
  46. ———. 2001. Some Unknown Paharia Freedom Fighters of Santal Parganas Division in Jharkhand State. In Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, 733–738. Kolkata: Indian History Congress.Google Scholar
  47. ———. 2005a. Bhagalpur (Bihar) ke Samaharta Augustus Cleveland (1779–1784). Proceedings of Bihar Itihas Parishad: 480–489. Muzaffarpur: BHIP.Google Scholar
  48. ———. 2005b. Santal Pargana Pramandal (Jharkhand) ki Adim Janjati Sauria Maler (Sauria Paharia) ki Samsyanyein. Vanyajati LIII (4): 51–56.Google Scholar
  49. ———. 2006. Nationalist Movevemt in Jharkhand:Santal Parganas (1855–1945). Rampurhat: Academic Forum Publication Centre.Google Scholar
  50. ———. 2008. Santal Pargana: Itihas, Puratatva aur Sansriti. Rampurhat: Academic Forum Publication Centre.Google Scholar
  51. ———. 2009a. Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Livelihood Programmes for Primitive Tribes in India: A Case Study of the Paharias of Santal Parganas in Jharkhand. Vanyajati LVII (3): 19–27.Google Scholar
  52. ———. 2009b. Santal Pargana (Jharkhand) ki Adim Paharia Janjati,Shoshan aur Garibi ki Avisvasniya Mishal. Vanyajati LVII (1): 24–35.Google Scholar
  53. Verma, Chandrakant. 2013. Jharkhand ke Adivasi. Allahabad: K. K. Publications.Google Scholar
  54. Verma, D.N 2014. Jharkhand ki Adim Janjatiyon mein Uchch Shiksha ki Stithi, Samsyaein aur Pratyasha, Vanyajati LXII (2): 31–38.Google Scholar
  55. ———.N 2016. Revisiting Indigenous Knowledge System of Farming: A Study of Jhum Cultivation of Autochthon Paharias of Jharkhand in Historical Perspectives and its effects on the tribe. Man and Life 42(1&2): 65–72.Google Scholar
  56. Vidyarthi, L.P. 1963. The Maler: A Study in Nature-Man-Spirit Complex of a hill Tribe. Calcutta: Bookland.Google Scholar
  57. ———. 1985. Bihar ke Adivasi. Patna: Shukla Book Depot.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dinesh Narayan Verma
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of HistoryB.S.K. CollegeBarharwa (Sahibganj)India

Personalised recommendations