Advertisement

Contact and Conflict: Case of Inhabitants of Andaman Islands

  • Umesh Kumar
Chapter

Abstract

Ecological factor plays a significant role in the process of interaction between tribes and non-tribes. This premise forms the essence of discussion in this chapter. Andaman Islanders are eco-system people who encountered encroachment of their resources during colonial rule and subsequently by settlers in Independent India. The chapter highlights how colonial rule and settlers reduced the tribes from resource owners to resource refugees, for they have been depending upon the dole provided by the administration after their contact. Precisely, the paper applies ecological perspective to study the history of tribal resistance in Andaman Islands during colonial interventions, and the process of integration through confrontation and conciliation after India’s Independence.

Keywords

Andaman Islands Penal settlement Colonial rule Great Andamanese Resource density Refugee rehabilitation Andaman and Nicobar Administration 

References

  1. Andaman Adim Janjati Vikas Samiti (AAJVS). 2002. Records on Primitive Tribal Group of Andaman. Unpublished. Port-Blair: Andaman and Nicobar Administration.Google Scholar
  2. ———. 2010. Records on Primitive Tribal Groups of Andaman. Unpublished. Port-Blair: Andaman and Nicobar Administration.Google Scholar
  3. Anthropological Survey of India (An.SI). 2002. Jarawa Report. Unpublished. Kolkata: Anthropological Survey of India.Google Scholar
  4. Basu, B.K. 1990. The Onges. Kolkata: Seagull Books.Google Scholar
  5. Census of India. 1931. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands; General Report. Part-I & II, Vol. II. Calcutta: Central Publication.Google Scholar
  6. ———. 1961. Andaman and Nicobar Islands; General Report. Part-I, Vol. XVII. Delhi: Government of India.Google Scholar
  7. ———. 1981. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands Census of India. Series 24, Part IIA and IIB. Port-Blair: Directorate Census Operations.Google Scholar
  8. ———. 1991. General Population Table and Primary Census Abstract: Andaman Nicobar Islands. Part-II, A, Series-27. Port-Blair: Directorate of Census Operation, A&N Islands.Google Scholar
  9. ———. 2001a. Andaman and Nicobar Population Totals. Series-36, Paper-2. Port-Blair: Directorate of Census Operation, A & N Islands.Google Scholar
  10. ———. 2001b. Primary Census Abstract: Andaman and Nicobar Island. (C D). Port-Blair: Directorate of Census Operation, A&N Islands.Google Scholar
  11. Chakraborty, D.K. 1990. The Great Andamanese. Kolkata: Seagull Books.Google Scholar
  12. Chakraborty, S., and A. Dinda. 2002. The Jarawa and Their Neighbour: The Post-Independence Scenario. In Jarawa Contact: Ours with Them and Theirs with Us, ed. K. Mukhopadhyay, R.K. Bhattacharya, and B.N. Sarkar, 43–57. Kolkata: The Anthropological Survey of India.Google Scholar
  13. Cipriani, Lidio. 1966. Andaman Islanders. London: Wiedenfeld and Nicolson.Google Scholar
  14. Danda, A.K. 1993. Indigenous Small Populations of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In Andaman and Nicobar Islanders: Studies on Small Populations, Anthropological Society Occasional Papers, ed. A. Basu, J. Sarkar, and A.K. Danda, 85–100. Kolkata: Indian Anthropological Society.Google Scholar
  15. Department of Environment and Forest (DoEF). 2002. Forest Statistics. Port-Blair: Vansadan.Google Scholar
  16. Directorate of Economics and Statistics. 2007. Basic Statistics 2006–2007. Port-Blair: Andaman and Nicobar Administration.Google Scholar
  17. Kumar, U. 2002. Marginalization of the Onges of the Little Andaman. The Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India (Special Issue, Marginal Communities) 51 (1): 25–137.Google Scholar
  18. ———. 2015. Contested Space, Confronting Economies and the Marginal Communities. In Tribes and Analogous People in India: Contemporary Issue, ed. B.F. Kulirani, K.K. Misra, and K.K. Basa, vol. 233, 256. Delhi: Gyan Publishing House.Google Scholar
  19. Kumar, U., and S. Biswas. 2002. The Jarawa and Their Habitat: A Man-Nature Relationship. In Jarawa Contact: Ours with Them and Theirs with Us, ed. K. Mukhopadhyay, R.K. Bhattacharya, and B.N. Sarkar, 58–71. Kolkata: Anthropological Survey of India.Google Scholar
  20. Kumar, U., and R. Haider. 2007. Impact of Tsunami at the Onge Settlement at Dugong Creek, Little Andaman. In Tsunami in South Asia: Studies of Impact on Communities of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, ed. AnSI, 103–119. Kolkata/New Delhi: Anthropological Survey of India/Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd.Google Scholar
  21. Lal, P. 1976. Andaman Islands: A Regional Geography. Kolkata: Anthropological Survey of India.Google Scholar
  22. Majumdar, R.C. 1975. Penal Settlement in Andamans. Delhi: Gazetteers Unit, Department of Culture, Government of India.Google Scholar
  23. Man, E.H. 1975. The Aboriginal Inhabitants of the Andaman Islands. Delhi: Sanskaran Prakasan. First published in 1883.Google Scholar
  24. Mathur, L.P. 1968. History of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (1756–1966). Delhi: Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.Google Scholar
  25. Mukhopadhyay, K. 2002. A Brief history of Relationship Between the Jarawa and Others. In Jarawa Contact: Ours with Them and Theirs with Us, ed. K. Mukhopadhyay, R.K. Bhattacharya, and B.N. Sarkar, 25–42. Kolkata: The Anthropological Survey of India.Google Scholar
  26. Mukhopadhyay, K., R.K. Bhattacharya, and B.N. Sarkar. 2002. Jarawa Contact: Ours with Them and Theirs with Us. Kolkata: The Anthropological Survey of India.Google Scholar
  27. Murthy, R.V.R. 2009. Penal System in Andaman. Dialogue 10: 3. Downloaded from http://www.asthabharati.org/Dia_Jan%2009/RVR.htm.Google Scholar
  28. Pandit, T.N. 1990. The Sentinelese. Kolkata: Seagull Books.Google Scholar
  29. Pandit, T.N., and M. Chattopadhyay. 1993. Meeting the Sentinelese: The Least Known of the Andaman Hunter-Gatherers. In Andaman and Nicobar Islanders: Studies on Small Populations, Anthropological Society Occasional Papers, ed. A. Basu, J. Sarkar, and A.K. Danda, 169–178. Kolkata: Indian Anthropological Society.Google Scholar
  30. Portman, M.V. 1990. A History of Our Relation with the Andamanese. Vol. I & II. New Delhi/Madras: Asian Educational Services. First published in 1899.Google Scholar
  31. Radcliffe-Brown, A.R. 1922. The Andaman Islanders. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Sarkar, J. 1987. Befriending the Jarawa: A Challenging Task. Human Science 36: 1–12.Google Scholar
  33. ———. 1990. The Jarawa. Kolkata: Seagull Books.Google Scholar
  34. ———. 1993. Endangered Tribe and Their Development in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In Andaman and Nicobar Islanders: Studies on Small Populations, Anthropological Society Occasional Papers, ed. A. Basu, J. Sarkar, and A.K. Danda, 1–46. Kolkata: Indian Anthropological Society.Google Scholar
  35. Sen, P.K. 1962. Land and People of the Andaman Islands. Calcutta: The Post Graduate Book Mart.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Umesh Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Anthropological Survey of India, Ministry of Culture, Government of IndiaKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations