Venues of Counter-Hegemonic Visuality; Days of Contention
This chapter introduces and describes how, as the arguable center of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region’s protest culture and tradition, Hong Kong, and especially Hong Kong Island, contains a number of venues where demonstrations, rallies, and protests are prepared, deployed from, or held. The chapter, and the associated repertoire of images, begins the visual exploration of how the city has been visually re-imagined, transformed, and utilized by its subalterns to reproduce their aspirations and demands for greater democracy and social justice while subversively contesting and resisting hegemonic pressures to accept mainland Chinese cultural, economic, and political domination. The co-optation by anti-hegemonic Hongkongers of key cultural, economic, social, and political venues within the city during its many demonstrations, processions, rallies, and protests can be seen as visual resistance and as an effort to create a rich countervisuality by giving “voice to the visual.” Similarly, the conflation of special days (January 1st, May 4th, June 4th, July 1st, October 1st) with identifiable protests in Hong Kong—“Days of Contention”—suggest a similar impetus.
KeywordsChief Executive Urban Park Falun Gong Arguable Center Foreign Domestic Worker
- Abbas, M. A. (1997). Hong Kong: Culture and the politics of disappearance. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
- AECOM Asia Co. Ltd. (2008). Study on pedestrian subways and related traffic improvement measures. Hong Kong SAR: AECOM Asia Co. Ltd.Google Scholar
- Amnesty International. (2011). Annual Report: China 2011.Google Scholar
- Chan, C. (24 March 2007a). Stars join Tsang in ‘miracle’ playground. The Standard.Google Scholar
- Chan, C. (23 March 2007b). Tsang aims to ‘galvanize poll and foster cohesion’ at rally. The Standard.Google Scholar
- Cheng, J. Y. S. (2005). Introduction: Causes and implications of the July 1 Protest Rally in Hong Kong. In J. Y. S. Cheng (Ed.), The July 1 protest rally: Interpreting a historic event. Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong Press.Google Scholar
- Cheng, J. (13 November 2011). Parade of pride not prejudice. South China Morning Post.Google Scholar
- Cheung, V. (25 June 2012). Occupy no more. The Standard.Google Scholar
- Cheung, G., Fung, F. W. Y. (5 June 2010). Huge turnout surprises vigil organisers. South China Morning Post.Google Scholar
- Ching, F. (9 June 2010). Broken bond. South China Morning Post.Google Scholar
- Chiu, A. (30 June 2011a). Fine for unlicensed democracy statue. South China Morning Post.Google Scholar
- Chiu, A. (12 April 2011b). Putting up statue a safety risk, court told. South China Morning Post.Google Scholar
- Chiu, S. W.-k., & Lui, T.-L. (2000). The dynamics of social movement in Hong Kong (Hong Kong culture and society). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
- Chui, T. (18 June 2008). Plaza sued over exorbitant rentals. The Standard.Google Scholar
- Garrett, D., & Ho, W. C. (2014). Hong Kong at the brink: Emerging forms of political participation in the new social movement. In J. Y. S. Cheng (Ed.), New trends in Hong Kong’s political participation. Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong Press.Google Scholar
- HKSAR Government. (2007). SCMA officiates at opening of racial harmony variety show (with photo). Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau.Google Scholar
- Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democratic Movements of China. (2009). Declaration of 10.1 & Upcoming Activities. http://www.alliance.org.hk/1001/2009/act.html#eng. Accessed 1 June 2012.
- Koh, C.-l. (2007). The use of public space by foreign female domestic workers in Hong Kong, Singapore and Kuala Lumpur. Department of Urban Studies and Planning: Masters, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
- Le Pichon, A. (2009). In the heart of victoria: The emergence of Hong Kong’s statue square as a symbol of victorian achievement. Perspectives Victoriennes, VII(3), 605–625.Google Scholar
- Lee, F. L. F., & Chan, J. M. (2011). Media, social mobilisation and mass protests in post-colonial Hong Kong: The power of a critical even (Media, culture and social change in Asia series). Hong Kong SAR: Routledge.Google Scholar
- LegCo. (2010). Official Record of Proceedings Wednesday, 30 June 2010. Hong Kong SAR.Google Scholar
- Leung, B. K. P. (2000). The student movement in Hong Kong: Transition to a democratizing society. In S. W.-k. Chiu & T.-L. Lui (Eds.), The dynamics of social movement in Hong Kong (Vol. Hong Kong culture and society). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
- Li, S. (14 December 2011). Causeway bay rents set to continue upward march South China Morning Post.Google Scholar
- Lo, S. H. (2008). The dynamics of Beijing-Hong Kong relations: a model for Taiwan? Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
- Petersen, C. J. (2005). Introduction. In H. L. Fu, C. J. Petersen, & S. N. M. Young (Eds.), National security and fundamental freedoms: Hong Kong’s article 23 under scrutiny. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
- Purcell Miller Tritton LLP. (2009). Central Government Offices: Historic and Architectural Appraisal.Google Scholar
- Pushy Times Square guards raise hackles. (5 March 2008). The Standard.Google Scholar
- Sing, M., & Tang, Y.-s. (2012). Mobilization and conflicts over Hong Kong’s democratic reform. In W.-m. Lam, P. L.-t. Lui, & W. Wong (Eds.), Contemporary Hong Kong government and politics (2nd ed.). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
- Transport Department. (n.d.). Pedestrian Schemes for Mong Kok. http://www.td.gov.hk/en/transport_in_hong_kong/pedestrianisation/pedestrianisation/mong_kok/index_t.html. Accessed 1 October 2013.
- Yang, P. H. (2010). Historic cross-border rally to save Cantonese in China. http://ireport.cnn.com/docs/DOC-478323. Accessed 1 May 2012.
- Yao, J. (2011). Liaison Office takes a “Soft Line” on Hong Kong protest. Journalism and Media Studies Centre, The University of Hong Kong. Covering China. http://coveringchina.org/2011/06/03/liaison-office-takes-a-soft-line-on-hong-kong-protest/. Accessed 1 March 2013.