Advertisement

Introduction

  • Daniel Garrett
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter introduces the contemporary political situation of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region noting that after 17 years of Chinese communist rule the Region is a vivacious and provocative enclave of counter-hegemonic protest and resistance towards local and mainland dominate forces. It explains how Hong Kong, as a special enclave within the People’s Republic of China, continues to enjoy limited democracy and liberal freedoms such as freedom of speech, press, and protest under the “one country, two systems” ideology though these areas have become increasingly contested. Subsequently it introduces and briefly elucidates how the visibility of subaltern protest in the Region reflects a counter-hegemonic struggle over the visuality of the city and the “one country, two systems” notion which has most vividly been manifested in the visual disruptions of hegemonic notions of Hong Kong as an economic, not political, city, and of “one country, two systems” as a success. It concludes by describing data and methods employed in this exploratory study.

Keywords

Social Movement Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Special Administrative Region Universal Suffrage Hong Kong Special Administrative Region 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. AP. (1 January 2010). Hong Kong protesters seek democracy. The New York Times.Google Scholar
  2. Brodie, R. (1996). Virus of the mind: The new science of the meme (1st ed.). Seattle: Integral Press.Google Scholar
  3. Carroll, J. M. (2005). Edge of empires: Chinese elites and British colonials in Hong Kong. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Chan, B. (5 October 2012a). HK policymakers can’t ignore online activism. South China Morning Post.Google Scholar
  5. Chan, T. (4 October 2012b). Social movements getting more politically motivated. China Daily.Google Scholar
  6. Chan, T. (10 October 2012c). A dangerous political trend. China Daily.Google Scholar
  7. Chan, K. (8 February 2013a). Radical protester jailed for national flag desecration. China Daily.Google Scholar
  8. Chan, C.-T. (2013b). Young activists and the anti-patriotic education movement in Post-Colonial Hong Kong: Some insights form Twitter. Citizenship, Social and Economics Education, 12(3), 148–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cheung, A. B. L. (2005). The Hong Kong system under one country being tested: Article 23, governance crisis and the search for a new Hong Kong identity. In J. Y. S. Cheng (Ed.), The july 1 protest rally: Interpreting a historic event. Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong Press.Google Scholar
  10. Cheung, A. B. L. (28 December 2006). The rise of identity politics. South China Morning Post.Google Scholar
  11. Cheung, A. (2008). Hong Kong’s role in transforming China. In M. K. Chan (Ed.), China’s Hong Kong transformed: Retrospect and prospects beyond the first decade. Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong Press.Google Scholar
  12. China Post. (7 September 2012). ‘National education’ highlights Hong Kong identity politics. The China Post.Google Scholar
  13. Chinese University of Hong Kong. (2010). Social attitudes of the youth population in Hong Kong. Hong Kong SAR: Public Policy Research Centre, Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies.Google Scholar
  14. Chinese University of Hong Kong. (2012). An investigation of the perception of social justice across social groups. Hong Kong SAR: Central Policy Unit.Google Scholar
  15. Chiu, S. W.-k., & Lui, T.-L. (2000). The dynamics of social movement in Hong Kong (Hong Kong culture and society). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Corrigall-Brown, C. (2012). The power of pictures: Images of politics and protest. American Behavioral Scientist, 56(2), 131–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Delicath, J. W., & DeLuca, K. M. (2003). Image events, the public sphere, and argumentative practice: The case of radical environmental groups. Argumentation, 17, 315–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. DeLuca, K. M. (1999). Image politics: The new rhetoric of environmental activism (Revisioning rhetoric). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  19. Dittmer, J. (2005). Captain America’s Empire: Reflections on identity, popular culture, and post 9/11 geopolitics. Annuals of the Association of American Geographers, 95(3), 626–643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dittmer, J. (2010). Popular culture, geopolitics, and identity (Human geography in the new millennium: Issues and applications). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  21. Doerr, N. (2010). Politicizing precarity, producing visual dialogues on migration: Transnational public spaces in social movements. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 11(2), 1–27.Google Scholar
  22. Doerr, N., & Teune, S. (2007, November). Visual codes in movement. When the protest imagery hits the establishment. Paper presented at the Establishment Responds: The Institutional and Social Impact of Protest Movements During and After the Cold War, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  23. Doerr, N., & Teune, S. (2012). Visual codes in movement. When the protest imagery hits the establishment. In K. Fahlenbrach (Ed.), The establishment responds: Power, politics, and protest since 1945 (1st ed.), Palgrave Macmillan transnational history series). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  24. Doerr, N., Mattoni, A., & Teune, S. (2013). Towards a visual analysis of social movements, conflicts and political mobilization. Research in Social Movements, Conflict and Change, 35, xi–xxvi.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Edelman, M. J. (2001). The politics of misinformation (communication, society, and politics). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Edmonton Journal. (2 July 2000). Protests mark Hong Kong anniversary: Growing numbers unhappy with unelected chief. Edmonton Journal.Google Scholar
  27. Fu, H., Petersen, C., & Young, S. N. M. (2005). National security and fundamental freedoms: Hong Kong’s article 23 under scrutiny. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Garrett, D. (2009). ‘One country, two systems’ in the 21st Century: A new policy? Paper presented at the China’s Rise and Its Impact on Asia: Democratization, Development and Culture, 20–22, Louisville, Kentucky.Google Scholar
  29. Garrett, D. (2013). Visualizing protest culture in China’s Hong Kong: Recent tensions over integration. Visual Communication, 12(1), 55–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Garrett, D. (2014). Superheroes in Hong Kong’s political resistance: Images, icons, and opposition. Political Science and Politics, 47(1), 112–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Garrett, D., & Ho, W. C. (2014). Hong Kong at the Brink: Emerging forms of political participation in the new social movement. New trends in Hong Kong’s political participation. Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong Press.Google Scholar
  32. Grabe, M. E., & Bucy, E. P. (2009). Image bite politics: News and the visual framing of elections (Series in political psychology). Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Guan, W. (2012). When copyrights meet human rights: Cyberspace Article 23’ and Hong Kong’s copyright protection in the digital era. RCCL Working Paper: Centre for Chinese and Comparative Law (RCCL).Google Scholar
  34. Harper, D. (1988). Visual sociology: Expanding sociological vision. The American Sociologist, 19(1), 54–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. HKU. (2011). A study on understanding our young generation. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  36. Ho, W. C. (2009). Controlling Hong Kong from Afar: The Chinese politics of Elite absorption after the 2003 crisis. Issues and Studies, 45(3), 121–164.Google Scholar
  37. Ho, W. C. (2010). Hong Kong’s Elite structure, legislature and the bleak future of democracy under Chinese Sovereignty. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 40(3), 466–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hong Kong Transition Project. (2011). Protest and post-1980s youth: A special report on the post post-1980 generation in Hong Kong. In M. DeGolyer (Ed.). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Transition Project.Google Scholar
  39. Information Services Department. (2012a). LCQ20: Setting up designated public activity areas. Hong Kong SAR: Information Services Department.Google Scholar
  40. Information Services Department. (2012b). Police, media liaise on July 1 arrangements. Hong Kong SAR: Information Services Department.Google Scholar
  41. Ip, K. (21 October 2013). Shock TV turnout. The Standard.Google Scholar
  42. Kan, K. (2012). Lessons in patriotism: Producing national subjects and the de-Sinicisation debate in China’s post-colonial city. China Perspectives, 4, 63–69.Google Scholar
  43. Khatib, L. (2012). Image politics in the Middle East: The role of the visual in political struggle. London: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd.Google Scholar
  44. Kong, L. F. (13 July 2000). SAR must reform or decline, says Tung. South China Morning Post.Google Scholar
  45. Ku, A. S. (2012). Remaking places and fashioning an opposition discourse: Struggle over the star ferry pier and the queen’s pier in Hong Kong. Environment and Planning D: Space and Society, 30, 5–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kuah-Pearce, K. E., & Guiheux, G. (2009). Social movements in China and Hong Kong: The expansion of protest space. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kwong, K.-m., & Yew, C. P. (2012). Hong Kong politics: Diminished government credibility and heightened political awareness. East Asian Policy, 4(1), 43–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lam, O.-W., & Ip, I.-C. (2011a). Hong Kong: A new page for affective mobilization. In I.-C. Ip (Ed.), Social media uprising in the Chinese-speaking world. Hong Kong: Hong Kong InMedia.Google Scholar
  49. Lam, O.-W., & Ip, I.-C. (2011b). Social media uprising in the Chinese-speaking world. Hong Kong: Hong Kong InMedia.Google Scholar
  50. Lau, N.-k. (January 2012). Beware the pull of identity politics in Hong Kong. South China Morning Post.Google Scholar
  51. Lee, F. L. F. (2006). Collective efficacy, support for democratization, and political participation in Hong Kong. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 18(3), 297–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lee, F. L. F. (2010). The perceptual bases of collective efficacy and protest participation: The case of pro-democracy protests in Hong Kong. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 22(3), 392–411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lee, C., Ho, L., & Cheung, G. (20 December 2012). Polling handshakes, a vote of confidence. South China Morning Post.Google Scholar
  54. Levitsky, S., & Way, L. (2010). Competitive authoritarianism: Hybrid regimes after the Cold War (Problems of international politics). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Li, J. (7 July 2010). Liaison office cautions protestors to show restraint. China Daily.Google Scholar
  56. Liao, T. F. (2010). Visual symbolism, collective memory, and social protest: A study of the 2009 London G20 protest. Social Alternatives, 29(3), 37–43.Google Scholar
  57. Lichterman, P. (2002). Seeing structure happen: Theory-driven participant observation. In B. Klandermans & S. Staggenborg (Eds.), Methods of social movement research. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  58. Liu, J. (17 June 2012). Li Wangyang: Hong Kong asks who killed Tiananmen activist. BBC.Google Scholar
  59. Lo, S. (2007). The mainlandization and recolonization of Hong Kong: A triumph of convergence over divergence with mainland China. In J. Y. S. Cheng (Ed.), The Hong Kong special administrative region in its first decade (pp. 179–222). Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong Press.Google Scholar
  60. Lo, S. H. (2008). The dynamics of Beijing-Hong Kong relations: A model for Taiwan? Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Lo, T. W. (2012). Resistance to the mainlandization of criminal justice practices: A barrier to the development of restorative justice in Hong Kong. Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 56(4), 627–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lo, S. H. (2014). Hong Kong. In W. A. Joseph (Ed.), Politics in China: An introduction (2nd edn.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Ma, N. (2007). Political development in Hong Kong: state, political society, and civil society. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Mirzoeff, N. (2011). The right to look: A counterhistory of visuality. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mitchell, W. J. T. (2010). Cloning terror: The war of images, 9/11 to the present. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Morgan, D. (2005). The sacred gaze: religious visual culture in theory and practice. Berkely: Univeristy of California Press.Google Scholar
  67. Ng, K.-c., Sze, T. W., & Leung, L. (2 July 2000). Protests mar anniversary. South China Morning Post.Google Scholar
  68. Ngo, J. (28 September 2013). 1.3 million Hongkongers live in poverty, government says, but offers no solution. South China Morning Post.Google Scholar
  69. Ngo, J., & Lau, S. (3 January 2013). City’s activists get more radical to ensure they are heard. South China Morning Post.Google Scholar
  70. Perlmutter, D. D. (1998). Photojournalism and foreign policy: icons of outrage in international crises (Praeger series in political communication). Westport: Praeger.Google Scholar
  71. Philipps, A. (2012). Visual protest material as empirical data. Visual Communication, 11(3), 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Poon, K. (2008). The political future of Hong Kong: Democracy within communist China (Routledge studies on the Chinese economy, Vol. 28). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  73. Schudson, M. (1989). How culture works: Perspectives from media studies on the efficacy of symbols. Theory and Society, 18(2), 153–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sing, M. (2000). Mobilization for political change—The pro-democracy movement in Hong Kong (1980–1994s). In S. W.-k. Chiu & T.-L. Lui (Eds.), The dynamics of social movement in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Sing, M. (2009). Hong Kong’s democrats hold their own. Journal of Democracy, 20(1), 98–112, doi:10.1353/jod.0.0046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Siu, P. (11 June 2012). Li death sparks mass protest. The Standard.Google Scholar
  77. Siu, B. (23 October 2013). We’ve reached critical point, warns Law. The Standard.Google Scholar
  78. So, A. Y. (2011). The development of post-modernist social movements in the Hong Kong special administrative region. In J. Broadbent & V. Brockman (Eds.), East Asian social movements: Power, protest, and change in a dynamic region (Nonprofit and civil society studies). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  79. South China Morning Post. (21 October 2013). Mass Rally to ‘defend HK’s core values’. South China Morning Post.Google Scholar
  80. Tam, Y.-c. (19 October 2012). Let edu serve its true purpose. China Daily.Google Scholar
  81. The Hong Kong Journalist Association. (2013). Dark clouds on the horizon: Hong Kong’s freedom of expression faces new threat. 2013 Annual Report.Google Scholar
  82. Truscello, M. (2012). Social media and the representation of summit protests: YouTube, Riot Porn, and the Anarchist Tradition. In T. Gournelos & D. J. Gunkel (Eds.), Transgression 2.0: Media, culture, and the politics of a digital age. New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  83. Tsoi, G. (1 September 2011). Copyright crackdown. Hong Kong Magazine.Google Scholar
  84. Twenty-first Meeting of the Human Rights Forum. (2011). Constitutional and mainland affairs bureau. Hong Kong: Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau, HKSAR Government.Google Scholar
  85. Wah, C. K. (2009). Central star ferry pier: Policy, politics, and protest in the making of heritage in Hong Kong. (Master of Sciences in Conservation), University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. http://hdl.handle.net/10722/152558.
  86. Yang, S. (27 September 2012). Hong Kong needs rational expression. China Daily.Google Scholar
  87. Yep, R. (2012). Hong Kong-Mainland tension on the brink of explosion. [Commentary]. Brookings Northeast Asia Commentary, 62.Google Scholar
  88. Zuev, D. (2010). A visual dimension of protest: An analysis of interactions during the Russian March. Visual Anthropology, 23, 221–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.City University of Hong KongKowloonHong Kong SAR

Personalised recommendations