Discrimination, Xenophobia and Stigmatization

  • AKM Ahsan Ullah
  • Ahmed Shafiqul Huque


This chapter conceptualizes multi-level discriminations and stigmatization and differential health outcomes. They breed mounting trauma, complexities in relationships, dwindling level of confidence, conflict in treatment regimen. Lives could be incarcerated by the experience of dehumanizing top-down structures of discriminations. This chapter presents the research findings. Using a theoretical framework which outlines the hierarchies of discrimination and stigmatization, the empirics will be triangulated with the theories to better explain where and in what ways these populations are being discriminated against and stigmatized, and the implication of xenophobic treatment on them. This chapter further discusses the consequences and implications of such treatments given to them on the health outcomes, and treatment regimen.

In fact, people living with HIV/AIDS are not considered a danger to public health or safety in Canada. They may only be excluded on the grounds of being ‘expected to place an excessive demand on publicly funded health or social services’. There are two exceptions to this regulation, one for people applying for permanent residence as a refugee or as a person ‘in need of protection’ and another for ‘family class’ applicants.

Many of the theories related to identity, prejudice, stereotyping, group dynamics, and social movements are relevant to a discussion of stigma, as are other aspects of human interaction. At the same time, cross-cultural and historical contexts need to be considered given that stigmas which are significant in a particular society and/or at a particular time in history may be relatively insignificant in another society and/or at another time.


Sexual Encounter Infected Person Voluntary Disclosure Homosexual Behaviour South Asian Community 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • AKM Ahsan Ullah
    • 1
  • Ahmed Shafiqul Huque
    • 2
  1. 1.Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD)Bandar Seri BegawanBrunei Darussalam
  2. 2.Department of Political ScienceMcMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada

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