Inside-Out Technique of Transforaminal Full-Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy (TELD)
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The inside-out technique of transforaminal full-endoscopic lumbar discectomy is a traditional technique, which was developed from percutaneous nucleotomy by Hijikata. Transforaminal approach can be done under local anesthesia, and there are great benefits. During the surgery, patients would be in awake and aware condition; thus, severe nerve root injury can be avoided. The surgical technique is easy to adopt by beginners compared to outside-in technique. However, it has some issues which we should pay attention to during surgery. If there would be exiting nerve root irritation when approaching to the disc, it is important not to hesitate to change for outside-in technique.
KeywordsTELD Local anesthesia Discogram Inside-out Half and half view