The Syncretism of Maritime Urbanism and Theater State in Indonesia 1500–1700: Banda Aceh and Demak

  • Bagoes Wiryomartono


Maritime trade has characterized long-standing economic activities in Southeast Asian archipelago since the prehistoric times. However, the emergence of urbanism and state polity of negara in this region was not earlier than the fourth century under the influence of Sanskrit culture from India. During the period between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries, the state polity had transformed and adjusted by the maritime contacts and interactions with the Persian, Arab, Indian, and Chinese merchants. The outcome of this assimilation and enculturation between locality and foreign influences is potentially the hybrid concept of negara and bandar. This study is to investigate and examine how this syncretism works and is possible. Moreover, this study is to divulge and unfold local concepts and historical traces that underpin and conserve the practice of maritime urbanism in Indonesia since the fifteenth century, with reference to the pre-colonial, colonial, and post-colonial city of Demak, Java and the city of Banda Aceh, Sumatra.


Maritime Urbanism Samudra Pasai Banda Aceh Demak bandar negara 


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© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bagoes Wiryomartono
    • 1
  1. 1.Independent ScholarTorontoCanada

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