Concluding Remarks

  • Jie XuEmail author
  • Mingyao Liu
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1248)


The regulation of immune checkpoint is a pivotal mechanism mediating both self-tolerance physiologically and tumor immune evasion pathologically. Along with an increasing number of identified checkpoint ligand–receptor pairs, the complexity of regulation at genetic, epigenetic, transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels makes it highly challenging to assemble a comprehensive regulatory network. Advanced animal models are required for determining the exact regulatory effects, given the differences in human and mouse immune systems. Our further understanding on checkpoint regulation may energize translational studies aimed to improve cancer immunotherapy, and collaborations between researchers with different expertise would help to tackle existing challenges in this field.


Immune checkpoint regulation Trans-omics Translational medicine Precision medicine Combinatorial therapy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Zhongshan-Xuhui HospitalFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Institute of Biomedical Sciences and School of Life SciencesEast China Normal UniversityShanghaiChina

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