Open Educational Resources and the Belt and Road Initiative

  • Ting-Wen ChangEmail author
  • Ahmed Tlili
  • Junfeng Yang
  • Ronghuai Huang
Part of the Lecture Notes in Educational Technology book series (LNET)


With the rapid advance of technologies, new ways of learning have emerged. One of these ways is open learning using Open Educational Resources (OERs). Several researchers have then reported several advantages of using OER in learning. To further facilitate the OER adoption worldwide, several initiatives have been launched. One of these initiatives is the OER Belt & Road. Therefore, this chapter further explains the term OER and presents an OER framework of eight factors to be considered by researchers while discussing OER in their context. Finally, this chapter presents the Belt & Road initiative launched by China to further support OER adoption and use in the Belt & Road countries.


Open educational resources (OERs) Open education Belt & road initiative Policies 


  1. Amiel, T., & Soares, T. C. (2016). Identifying tensions in the use of open licenses in OER repositories. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(3).Google Scholar
  2. Butcher, N., Kanwar, A., Uvalic ́-Trumbic ́, S. (2011). A basic guide to open educational resources (OER). Vancouver, Canada: Commonwealth of Learning, and Paris, France: UNESCO. Retrieved from
  3. de Oliveira, M. R., Sant’Anna, I. B., Ramos, G. S., de Bona, L. C. E., Castilho, M. A., Del Fabro, M. D., & Todt, E. (2018). Open educational resources platform based on collective intelligence. In 2018 IEEE 4th International Conference on Collaboration and Internet Computing (CIC) (pp. 346–353).Google Scholar
  4. Ehlers, U. D. (2011). Extending the territory: From open educational resources to open educational practices. Journal of Open, Flexible, and Distance Learning, 15(2), 1–10.Google Scholar
  5. Havemann, L. (2016). Open educational resources. In M. A. Peters (Ed.) Encyclopedia of educational philosophy and theory: Living edition. Singapore: Springer Singapore. Retrieved from
  6. Hilton, J. I. I. I. (2016). Open educational resources and college textbook choices: A review of research on efficacy and perceptions. Educational Technology Research and Development, 64(4), 573–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hilton III, J., Bliss, T. J., Robinson, T. J., & Wiley, D. A. (2013). An OER COUP: College teacher and student perceptions of open educational resources. Journal of Interactive Media in Education.Google Scholar
  8. Koper, R. (2003). Combining reusable learning resources and services with pedagogical purposeful units of learning. In Reusing online resources (pp. 64–77). Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. McGreal, R. (2011). Open educational resource repositories: An analysis. In The 3rd Annual Forum on e-Learning Excellence, Dubai, UAE. Available at:
  10. Ozdemir, O., & Bonk, C. (2017). turkish teachers' awareness and perceptions of open educational resources. Journal of Learning Development, 4(3), 307–321.Google Scholar
  11. Pomerantz, J., & Peek, R. (2016). Fifty shades of open. First Monday, 21(5).Google Scholar
  12. Tlili, A., Huang, R., Chang, T. W., Nascimbeni, F., & Burgos, D. (2019). Open educational resources and practices in China: A systematic literature review. Sustainability, 11(18), 4867.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Wang, C., & Zhao, G. (2011). Open educational resources in the People’s Republic of China: Achievements, challenges and prospects for development. Retrieved October 2, 2013.Google Scholar
  14. Wiley. (n.d.). Accessed from:
  15. Yawan, L., & Ying, L. (2013). A study on the use of open educational resources in China (pp. 21–39). Open Education Resources: An Asian Perspective.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ting-Wen Chang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ahmed Tlili
    • 2
  • Junfeng Yang
    • 3
  • Ronghuai Huang
    • 4
  1. 1.Beijing Normal UniversitySmart Learning InstituteBeijingChina
  2. 2.Beijing Normal UniversitySmart Learning InstituteBeijingChina
  3. 3.Hangzhou Normal UniversitySchool of EducationHangzhouChina
  4. 4.Beijing Normal UniversitySmart Learning InstituteBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations