Advertisement

Political and Social Inclusion and Local Democracy in Indian Cities: Case Studies of Delhi and Bengaluru

  • Debolina KunduEmail author
Chapter
  • 19 Downloads
Part of the Advances in 21st Century Human Settlements book series (ACHS)

Abstract

Growth of slums, urban poverty and inequality, deteriorating quality of the urban environment, unplanned growth, rapid periurbanisation and growth of sprawls, and deficiencies in the coverage of basic urban services have plagued Indian urbanisation. Through micro-level surveys in select slums and squatters in Delhi and Bangalore, this study attempts to identify the structural and institutional barriers to full engagement of marginalized groups in processes and mechanisms of local democracy, including participation in community based organizations in the provision of basic urban services. Results indicate two prominent categories of exclusion, viz, institutional including housing, land and basic services and structural including barriers to participation of women in economic, social and political activities. These manifest in various forms of inadequacies for different vulnerable groups. To elucidate, the migrants, living mostly in rented accommodation, have lower coverage to basic amenities as compared to the non-migrants. Similarly, the condition of the scheduled population is poor as compared to non-scheduled population. The condition is also poor for the low-income households. The slum dwellers from both cities perceive that providing support to elderly and disabled population, women and child safety, improving connectivity to slums and developing infrastructure and community based preparedness for disaster should be on high priority for the government. The slum dwellers showed low faith in local government as compared to NGOs, in whom they have higher confidence. An integrated approach to urban planning and management with proper targeting of beneficiaries may ensure inclusion of the disadvantaged sections of the society.

References

  1. Bhagat RB (2012) Migrants’ (denied) right to the city. In: Workshop compendium (Vol. II) workshop papers, national workshop on internal migration and human development in India. UNESCO/UNICEF, New Delhi, pp 86–99. http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/FIELD/New_Delhi/pdf/Internal_Migration_Workshop_-_Vol_2_07.pdf
  2. Harriss J (2005) Political participation, representation and the urban poor: findings from research in Delhi. Eco Pol Weekly 40(11):1041–1054Google Scholar
  3. Kundu N (2003) The case of Kolkata, India. In: UN-habitat, global report on human settlement 2003, The challenge of slums. Earthscan, London. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/Global_Report/pdfs/Kolkata.pdf
  4. Kundu A (2007) A Strategy paper on migration and urbanisation in the context of development dynamics, governmental programmes and evolving institutional structure in India. United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), IndiaGoogle Scholar
  5. Kundu D (2009) Elite capture and marginalisation of the poor in participatory urban governance-a case of resident welfare associations in Metro Cities. In: India urban poverty report, MoHUPA and UNDP. Oxford University Press, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  6. Kundu D (2011) Elite capture in participatory urban governance. Eco Pol Weekly 46(10):23–25Google Scholar
  7. Kundu D (2016) Emerging perspectives on urban-rural linkages in the context of Asian urbanisation. Reg Dev Dialogue 35:180–195Google Scholar
  8. Kundu D, Samanta D (2011) Redefining the inclusive urban agenda in India. Econ Political Weekly 46(5):55–63Google Scholar
  9. Kundu A, Saraswati LR (2012) Migration and exclusionary urbanisation in India. Eco Pol Weekly 47(26–27):219–227Google Scholar
  10. Planning Commission of India (2011) Urban development. In: Mid-term appraisal eleventh five year plan 2007–2012. Oxford University Press, New Delhi. http://planningcommission.gov.in/plans/mta/11th_mta/chapterwise/Comp_mta11th.pdf
  11. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2018) World urbanization prospects: the 2018 revision, online edition. https://www.un.org/development/desa/publications/2018-revision-of-world-urbanization-prospects.html

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Institute of Urban AffairsNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations