Unfettered and Effortless (xiaoyao, 逍遥)

  • Yueqing WangEmail author
  • Qinggang Bao
  • Guoxing Guan


Unfettered and effortless is a key concept in the history of Chinese philosophy. The words themselves mean actions that are free, unrestrained by anything, leisurely and carefree and doing what one pleases. In Zhuangzi’s philosophy, the idea of unfettered and effortless gained a meticulous and profound exegesis. “Unfettered and effortless” comprises two dimensions.


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© Nanjing University Press 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NanjingChina

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