Vital Energy (qi, 气)

  • Yueqing WangEmail author
  • Qinggang Bao
  • Guoxing Guan


Threading through the entirety of Chinese philosophy, qi is one of the most extensively used and important concepts in Chinese philosophy. As a word, qi appeared very early on and was already seen in the oracle bone scripts and its original meaning denoted the vapours of clouds.


  1. Kim, Jung-Yeup. 2015. Zhang Zai’s Philosophy of Qi: A Practical Understanding. Lanham, Boulder, New York, London: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  2. Major, John S., Sarah A., Queen, Andrew Seth., Meyer, and Harold D., Roth (Trans and eds.). 2010. The Huainanzi: A Guide to the Theory and Practice of Government in Early Han China. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Queen, Sarah. A., and John S. Major. 2016. Luxuriant Gems of the Spring and Autumn; Attributed to Dong Zhongshu, Trans. Sarah A. Queen and John S. Major. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Nanjing University Press 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NanjingChina

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