Rate Effect on the Residual Interface Strength Between two Different Soil Layers

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 62)


Landslides often develop along discontinuous planes, bedding planes or the interface between two soil layers. Recently, some investigations have been conducted to examine the residual strength mobilized on the interface between two soil layers. However, the effect of shear displacement rate on the residual interface shear strength behavior should be more examined, especially in the case of containing smectite minerals. In this study, the rate effect on the residual interface strength between two different soil layers in which one layer contains smectite minerals will be investigated. A number of ring shear tests were conducted on combined samples comprising of one kaolin layer and one kaolin-bentonite mixture layer with the shear rates from 0.02 mm/min to 20 mm/min and normal stress levels from 98 kPa to 294 kPa. The research results indicated that the residual interface strength and its rate dependency significantly depended on the characteristics of the contact material. The residual interface strength and its rate dependency also showed stress-dependent behaviour. In addition, the contact material may affect the effect of normal stress on the magnitude of the positive rate effect on the residual interface strength.


numerical analysis bored tunneling safety settlement pile foundation measurement 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anayi, J. T., Boyce, J. R., Rogers, C. D. (1988). Comparison of alternative methods of measuring residual strength of a clay. Transportation research record 1192, 16–26.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, W. F., Hammoud, F. (1988). Effective of testing procedure in ring shear tests. Geotechnical Testing Journal 11(3), 204–207.Google Scholar
  3. Bhat, D. R. (2013). Effect of shearing rate on residual strength of Kaolin clay. Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering (EJGE) 18, 1387–1396.Google Scholar
  4. Bishop, A. W., Green, G. E., Garga, V. K., Anderson, A., Brown, J. D. (1971). A new ring shear test apparatus and its application to the measurement of residual strength. Géotechnique 21(4), 273–328.Google Scholar
  5. Bromhead, E. N. (2013). Reflections on the residual strength of clay soils, with special reference to bedding-controlled landslides. The Twelfth Glossop Lecture, Quarterly Journal of Eng. Geol. and Hydrogeology, 132–155.Google Scholar
  6. Bromhead, E. N., Ibsen, M, L. (2004). Beddingcontrolled coastal landslides in Southeast Britan between Axmouth and the Thames Estuary. Landslides 1, 131–141.Google Scholar
  7. Chigira, M., Yagi, H. (2006). Geological and geomorphological characteristics of landslides triggered by the 2004 Mid Niigata prefecture earthquake in Japan. Eng.Geol 82, 202–221.Google Scholar
  8. Duong, N. T., Suzuki, M., Hai, N.V. (2018). Rate and acceleration effects on residual strength of kaolin and kaolin–bentonite mixtures in ring shearing. Soils and Foundations 58(5), 1153–1172.Google Scholar
  9. Eid, H. T., Amarasinghe, R. S., Rabie, K. H., Wijewickreme, D. (2015). Residual shear strength of fine-grained soils and soil-solid interfaces at low effective normal stresses. Can. Geotech. J. 52, 198–210.Google Scholar
  10. Gratchev, I., Sassa, K., Fukuoka, H. (2005). The shear strength of clayey soils from reactivated landslides, Annual of Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto, No 48, 431–438.Google Scholar
  11. Has, B., Nozaki, T. (2014). Role of geological structure in the occurrence of earthquakeinduced landslides, the case of the 2007 Mid-Niigata Offshore earthquake, Japan. Engineering Geology 182, 25–36.Google Scholar
  12. Japanese Geotechnical Society, JGS 0411-2009. Test method for one-dimensional consolidation properties of soils using incremental loading.Google Scholar
  13. Japanese Geotechnical Society, JGS 0560–2009. Method for consolidated constant-volume direct box shear test on soils.Google Scholar
  14. Lemos, L. J. L., Vaughan, P. R. (2000). Clayinterface shear resistance. Géotechnique 50(1), 55–64.Google Scholar
  15. Li, Y. R., Chan, L. S., Yeung, A. T., Xiang, X. Q. (2013). Effects of test conditions on shear behaviour of composite soil. Proceeding of ICE – Geotechnical Engineering, 1–11.Google Scholar
  16. Sassa, K., Fukuoka, H., Wang, F., Wang, G. (2005). Dynamic properties of earthquakeinduced large-scale rapid landslides within past landslides masses. Landslides 2, 125–134.Google Scholar
  17. Scaringi, G., Hu, W., Xu, Q., Huang, R. (2017). Shear-rate-dependent behavior of clayey bimaterial interfaces at landslide stress levels. Geophysical Research Letters 44, No 23.Google Scholar
  18. Stark, T. D., Choi, H. (2004). Peak versus residual interface strengths for landfill liner and cover design. Geosynthetics Int. 11(6), 491–498.Google Scholar
  19. Stark, T. D., Choi, H., McCone, S. (2005). Drained shear strength parameters for analysis of landslides. J of Geotechnical and Geoenviron. Eng. 131(5), 575–588.Google Scholar
  20. Stark, T. D., Eid, H. T. (1993). Modified Bromhead ring shear apparatus. Geotech. Test. J. 16 No 1, 100–107. Transportation Research Record 1479, 26–34.Google Scholar
  21. Stark, T. D., Eid, H. T. (1994). Drained residual strength of cohesive soils, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE, 120 No 1, 856–871.Google Scholar
  22. Stark, T. D., Hussain, M. (2010). Drained residual strength for landslides. GeoFlorida Conference, Orlando, Florida, United States, 3217–3226.Google Scholar
  23. Suzuiki, M., Umezaki, T., Kawakami, H. (1997). Relation between residual strength and shear displacement of clay in ring shear test. J. Jpn. Soc. Civ. Eng. 575 (III-40), 141–158 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  24. Suzuki, M., Hai, N. V., Yamamoto, T. (2017). Ring shear characteristics of discontinuous plane. Soils and Founds. 57 (1), 1–22.Google Scholar
  25. Tiwari, B. (2007). Chapter 9. Residual shear strength of Tertiary mudstone and influencing factors. In Proceeding of Progress in Landslide Sciences, 135–145.Google Scholar
  26. Tiwari, B., Brandon, T., L., Marui, H., Tuladhar, G., R. (2005). Comparison of residual shear strengths from back analysis and ring shear tests on undisturbed and remolded specimens. J. Geotech. Geoenvir. Eng., 131(9), 1071–1079.Google Scholar
  27. Townsend, F. C., Gilbert, P. A. (1976). Effects of specimen type on the residual strength of clays and clay shales, in Soils specimen Preparation for Laboratory Testing, ASTM special technical publication 599, American Society for Testing and Materials, 43–65.Google Scholar
  28. Wang, H. B., Sassa, K., Xu, W. Y. (2007). Analysis of a spatial distribution of landslides triggered by the 2004 Chuestu earthquakes of Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Nat. Hazards 41, 43–60.Google Scholar
  29. Xu, C., Wang, X., Lu, X., Dai, F., Jiao, S. (2018). Experimental study of residual strength and the index of shear characteristics of clay soil. Eng. Geol. 233, 183–190.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hanoi University of Mining and GeologyHanoiVietnam
  2. 2.Yamaguchi UniversityYamaguchiJapan

Personalised recommendations