Temporal Variation in Glacier’s Area and Identification of Glacial Lakes in Sikkim

  • Mahfooz AlamEmail author
  • Sandeep Bhardwaj
Part of the Advances in Geographical and Environmental Sciences book series (AGES)


Glacier’s ice cover is changing over time and subsequently topography of the region and other factors result in the formation of glacial lakes. This paper aims to identify the temporal changes in glacier’s area and glacial lakes with the help of remote sensing satellite images of Landsat. For the measurement of area covering glaciers, band rationing and filtering technique have been used with manual thresholding and manual post-processing by visual interpretation, and also conversion of raster to vector. For the identification of glacial lakes, NDWI technique is used with manual thresholding with the help of ERDAS IMAGINE 9.3 and QGIS 2.12.3 software. Results showing Glacier shrinkage about 22% ± 6% and the number of glacial lakes increased from 169 in the year 1992 to 261 in the year 2015. Glacial lakes can be seen as an indicator of glacial changes. The cause of shrinkage in these two decades can be said as increase in the temperature over the region and anthropogenic factors. Impact because of these changes could be a potential threat and may lead to disaster in the region.


Glacial lakes Glacial shrinkage Remote sensing techniques 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyKumaun UniversityUttarakhandIndia

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