An Example of Healthcare Service Market in Japan
A person responsible for the quality control division of a large-scale Japanese pharmaceutical company commented in our interview, “The problems with counterfeit medicines are extremely complicated and no one can identify which aspect of the problems should first be addressed. Conversely, we can ask why quality-related problems do not occur in Japan.”In Japan, access to medicines is synonymous with access to health care. The market of healthcare services is grounded on the universal health insurance coverage scheme endorsed by law, and the market and the scheme are integrated into one entity. The rationale for the entity is attributable to the fact that Article 25 of the Constitution of Japan guarantees the right to life for the whole population. The people have an incentive to access the healthcare service market that is supported by public systems. The private sector responsible for supply and distribution of healthcare services has an incentive to utilize access to this market so as to maximize their business opportunities. The pharmaceutical regulatory authorities effectively link these two incentives, which contribute to quality improvement for pharmaceutical products.
KeywordsConstitution Incentive Japan Right of life Universal health coverage
- MHLW Japan 2017. Relation Office of the Central Government.Google Scholar
- MHLW Japan. 2018a. https://www.mhlw.go.jp/file/06-Seisakujouhou-12400000-Hokenkyoku/0000172pdf#search=%27%E5%9B%BD%E6%B0%91%E7%9A%86%E4%BF%9D%E9%99%BA%E5%88%B6%E5%BA%A6%E3%81%A8%E3%81%AF%27. (In Japanese) Accessed 13 May 2018.
- MHLW Japan. 2018b. Sei, Nenrei Kaiyubetsu Kokumin Iryohi [National Health-Care Expenditure By Sex and Age]. http://www.mhlw.go.jp/toukei/saikin/hw/k-iryohi/08/kekka5.html. (In Japanese) Accessed 13 May 2018.
- Ministry of Finance Japan. 2018. Heisei 28 Nen no Zeikan ni okeru Chiteki Zaisanken Singaibuppin no Sashitome Jokyo [Banning status in 2016 of IPR Violating Goods at Customs]. https://www.mof.go.jp/customs_tariff/trade/safe_society/chiteki/cy2016/20170303b.htm. (In Japanese) Accessed 17 August 2018.
- Owada, Masahide. 2018. Cho-Koreika Shakai ni okeru Iryo Seido -Kateii Seido to Jintobarai Hoshu ni yoru Taio [Health Care System in a Super-Aged Society -Countermeasure with Family Doctor System and Remuneration by Capitation-]. CIPPS No.122. http://cipps.org/essay/pdf/info122.pdf. (In Japanese) Accessed 13 May 2018.
- Suganuma, Takashi, et al. 2018. An Oral History of Social Policy Development in Post-War Japan-120 Hours of Testimony from the Governmental Officials. Tokyo: Yuhikaku. (In Japanese)Google Scholar
- WHO. 2017. WHO Global Surveillance and Monitoring System for substandard and falsified medical products Reports and Executive summary. http://www.who.int/medicines/regulation/ssffc/publications/gsms-report-sf/en/. Accessed 3 June 2018.
- WHO. 2018. Japan Health System Review. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/259941/9789290226260-eng.pdf;jsessionid=A3E4F4161FA77B56D837EAA71DAF2222?sequence=1. Accessed 18 August 2018.