Women in Tourism Entrepreneurship in South Africa: Is it a Man’s World?
Globally, the number of women in entrepreneurial spaces is on the rise as the world witnesses a pursuit of a more gender-equal society. Despite several countries having legislation in place that allows women to start and grow their own businesses, women still face gender-specific challenges in their entrepreneurial journey. Research shows that the tourism industry is dominated largely by a female workforce, due to the prevalence of jobs associated with femininity in particular in the hospitality sector of the industry. In spite of this however, women are mainly employees in tourism organisations that are owned and man-aged by men and there is still a need to promote women-owned tourism businesses. This article explores the prominence of women in the tourism entrepreneurial space in South Africa. The challenges faced by women entrepreneurs in the tourism industry will be evaluated. The researchers look into privileges awarded to males by society from birth, as well as the effects of socialisation in women who aspire to be entrepreneurs. The differences in the experiences of male and female entrepreneurs in tourism are detailed in attempt to ascertain if the notion that “It’s a man’s world” still applies in the 21st century tourism boardroom.
KeywordsTourism Entrepreneur Gender Discrimination Male Privilege
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Adichie, C.N., 2014. We should all be feminists. Vintage.Google Scholar
- 2.Bamford, K. 2012. Undergraduate student perceptions of a career in the tourism and hospitality industry in New Zealand. PhD dissertation, University of Otago.Google Scholar
- 4.Botha, M., 2006. Measuring the effectiveness of the women entrepreneurship programme, as a training intervention, on potential, start-up and established women entrepreneurs in South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pretoria).Google Scholar
- 5.Bowitz, E. & Ibenholt, K. 2009. Economic impacts of cultural heritage–research and perspectives. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 10(1):1-8.Google Scholar
- 6.Businesstech. 2015. Rich white men in suits still dominate business in South Africa. Available online: https://businesstech.co.za/news/business/100374/rich-white-men-in-suits-still-dominate-business-in-south-africa/. [Accessed:08/08/2017].
- 7.Chinomona, E. And Maziriri, E.T., 2015. Women in action: Challenges facing women entrepreneurs in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. The In-ternational Business & Economics Research Journal (Online), 14(6), p.835.Google Scholar
- 8.Craciun, A., 2013. Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: A Sourcebook. Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
- 10.Del Mar Alonso-Almeida, M. 2012. Water and waste management in the Moroccan tourism industry: The case of three women entrepreneurs. Women’s Studies International Forum. Elsevier:343-353.entrepreneurship”, Tour-ism Management, Vol. 28 No. 1, pp. 280-289.Google Scholar
- 11.Derera, E., Chitakunye, P. & O’Neill, C., 2014. The impact of gender on start-up capital: A case of women entrepreneurs in South Africa. The Journal of Entrepreneurship, 23(1), pp.95-114.Google Scholar
- 12.Dwyer, L., Edwards, D., Mistilis, N., Roman, C. & Scott, N. 2009. Destination and enterprise management for a tourism future. Tourism Management, 30(1):63-74.Google Scholar
- 13.Fatoki, O.O., 2010. Graduate entrepreneurial intention in South Africa: Motivations and obstacles. International Journal of Business and Man-agement, 5(9), p.87.Google Scholar
- 17.Gorji, M.B. and Rahimian, P., 2011. The study of barriers to entrepreneurship in men and women. Australian Journal of Business and Management Re-search, 1(9), p.31.Google Scholar
- 19.Hansen, M. 2012. Birds of a feather flock together race versus gender preference in the South African workplace. Masters’ dissertation, University of Cape Town.Google Scholar
- 20.Kusluvan, S. & Kusluvan, Z. 2000. Perceptions and attitudes of undergraduate tourism students towards working in the tourism industry in Turkey. Tourism Management, 21(3):251-269.Google Scholar
- 22.Maleka, M., Ntanjana, A., Ndivhuwo, N., Du Plessis,L. 2018. Employment condition differences based on gender: A case of adventure tourism employees in Gauteng, South Africa. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 7(4).Google Scholar
- 23.Martin, P. & Barnard, A. 2013. The experience of women in male-dominated occupations: A constructivist grounded theory inquiry. SA Jour-nal of Industrial Psychology, 39(2):01-12.Google Scholar
- 24.Mbaiwa, J.E. & Stronza, A.L. 2010. The effects of tourism development on rural livelihoods in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(5):635-656.Google Scholar
- 25.Mcgehee, N.G., Kim, K. & Jennings, G.R. 2007. Gender and motivation for agri-tourism entrepreneurship. Tourism Management, 28(1):280-289.Google Scholar
- 26.Mcgowan, P., Redeker, C.L., Cooper, S.Y., & Greenan, K. (2011). Female entrepreneurship and the management of business and domestic roles: Motivations, expectations and realities. Entrepreneurship & Regional Develop-ment, 24(1/2), 53–72.Google Scholar
- 27.Moswete, N. & Lacey, G. 2015. “Women cannot lead”: empowering women through cultural tourism in Botswana. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 23(4):600-617.Google Scholar
- 28.Movono, A. & Dahles, H. 2017. Female empowerment and tourism: A focus on businesses in a Fijian village. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Re-search, 22(6):681-692.Google Scholar
- 29.Obadić, A. & Marić, I. 2009. The significance of tourism as an employment generator of female labour force. Ekonomska misao i praksa, (1):93-114.Google Scholar
- 30.Pettersson, K. & Heldt Cassel, S. 2014. Women tourism entrepreneurs: do-ing gender on farms in Sweden. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 29(8):487-504.Google Scholar
- 32.Phillips, M., Moos, M. And Nieman, G., 2014. The impact of government support initiatives on the growth of female businesses in Tshwane South Af-rica. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5(15), p.85.Google Scholar
- 35.Ramadani, Gerguri-Rashiti, Fayolle. 2015. Female entrepreneurship in transition economies: Trends and challenges. Palgrave Macmillan: LondonGoogle Scholar
- 36.Rincy, V.M. and Panchanatham, N., 2010. Development of a psychometric instrument to measure work life balance. Continental Journal of Social Sciences, 3, p.50.Google Scholar
- 38.Rouse, J., & Jayawarna, D. (2006). The financing of disadvantaged entrepre-neurs. Are enterprise programmes overcoming the finance gap? International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 12(6), 388–400.Google Scholar
- 39.Sageone. 2016. Top female entrepreneurs in South Africa. Available online: https://www.sageone.co.za/2015/11/16/top-female-entrepreneurs-in-south-africa/. [Accessed:08/08/2017].
- 40.Sharpley, R. & Vass, A. 2006. Tourism, farming and diversification: an attitudinal study. Tourism Management, 27(5):1040-1052.Google Scholar
- 41.Śledzik, K., 2013. Schumpeter’s view on innovation and entrepreneurship.Google Scholar
- 42.Snyman, N. 2013. The sex-role identities adopted by Black and White working females in South Africa. Master’s dissertation, University of Wit-watersrand, Johannesburg.Google Scholar
- 43.Statistics South Africa. 2017. Quarterly Labour Force Survey [Online]. Available from: http://www.statssa.gov.za/publications/P0211/P02112ndQuarter2017.pdf [Accessed 17/08/17]
- 44.Volery, T., 2007. Ethnic entrepreneurship: a theoretical frame-work. Handbook of research on ethnic minority entrepreneurship: A co-evolutionary view on resource management, pp.30-41.Google Scholar
- 46.Wang, J., Ayres, H. & Huyton, J. 2010. Is tourism education meeting the needs of the tourism industry? An Australian case study. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education, 22(1):8-14.Google Scholar