Advertisement

Immunotherapy for Colon Cancer: Recent Perspectives

  • Christoffer B. Lambring
  • Chloe Smith
  • Sohail Siraj
  • Krishna Patel
  • Riyaz BashaEmail author
Chapter
  • 33 Downloads
Part of the Diagnostics and Therapeutic Advances in GI Malignancies book series (DTAGIM)

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is third in cancer-related deaths among male and female populations. It is a slowly progressing malignancy and therefore, early detection of ulcers or the non-malignant polyps can prevent the disease and result in better patient outcomes. There are several treatment regimens, including chemotherapy and radiation that have been used for decades in treating CRC. Morbidity caused by intensive therapy and limitations in treatment due to late stage diagnoses impact the survival of CRC patients and dampen the quality of life of surviving patients. Alternative approaches such as immunotherapy have been tested for some time to address the issues associated with intensive chemotherapy. Several strategies that have been studied in pre-clinical models for CRC are recently gaining attention due to promising results, leading to clinical trials. Strategies including the use of monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, T cell stimulators, and immune checkpoint inhibitors are currently in clinical trials. The results of these clinical trials are crucial for immunotherapy usage as a part of standard care. Less toxic and more specific immunotherapeutic approaches are urgently required to address the morbidity of CRC patients, these approaches have the ability to reduce metastasis and increase the survival rate in CRC patients.

Keywords

Colorectal cancer Immunotherapy PD-1 inhibitors Cancer vaccines 

References

  1. Altman V, Mann N (1948) Metastisizing carcinoid tumor of the appendix and cecum. Am J Surg 76(4):434–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson AS et al (2019) Lifestyle in patients at increased risk of colorectal cancer. J Hum Nutr Diet 32(5):570–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Antelo M et al (2019) Lynch-like syndrome is as frequent as Lynch syndrome in early-onset nonfamilial nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Int J Cancer 145(3):705–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnold M et al (2017) Global patterns and trends in colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. Gut 66(4):683–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arora N, Gupta A, Singh PP (2017) Biological agents in gastrointestinal cancers: adverse effects and their management. J Gastrointest Oncol 8(3):485–498CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Bat L et al (1992) Colonoscopy in patients aged 80 years or older and its contribution to the evaluation of rectal bleeding. Postgrad Med J 68(799):355–358CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Blackledge G et al (1979) A study of gastro-intestinal lymphoma. Clin Oncol 5(3):209–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bond JH (2002) Fecal occult blood test screening for colorectal cancer. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am 12(1):11–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carethers JM, Stoffel EM (2015) Lynch syndrome and Lynch syndrome mimics: the growing complex landscape of hereditary colon cancer. World J Gastroenterol 21(31):9253–9261CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Carroll MR, Seaman HE, Halloran SP (2014) Tests and investigations for colorectal cancer screening. Clin Biochem 47(10–11):921–939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carvalho S et al (2016) Immunotherapy of cancer: from monoclonal to oligoclonal cocktails of anti-cancer antibodies: IUPHAR review 18. Br J Pharmacol 173(9):1407–1424CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Celluzzi CM et al (1996) Peptide-pulsed dendritic cells induce antigen-specific CTL-mediated protective tumor immunity. J Exp Med 183(1):283–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cherradi S et al (2017) Antibody targeting of claudin-1 as a potential colorectal cancer therapy. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 36(1):89CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohen SA, Pritchard CC, Jarvik GP (2019) Lynch syndrome: from screening to diagnosis to treatment in the era of modern molecular oncology. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 20:293–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Contreary K, Nance FC, Becker WF (1980) Primary lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract. Ann Surg 191(5):593–598CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Corraliza-Gorjon I et al (2017) New strategies using antibody combinations to increase cancer treatment effectiveness. Front Immunol 8:1804CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. d’Amore F et al (1994) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract: a population-based analysis of incidence, geographic distribution, clinicopathologic presentation features, and prognosis. Danish lymphoma study group. J Clin Oncol 12(8):1673–1684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. DeRycke MS et al (2017) Targeted sequencing of 36 known or putative colorectal cancer susceptibility genes. Mol Genet Genomic Med 5(5):553–569CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Deveney KE, Way LW (1984) Follow-up of patients with colorectal cancer. Am J Surg 148(6):717–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Di Franco S et al (2017) Role of type I and II interferons in colorectal cancer and melanoma. Front Immunol 8:878CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Eastman ME et al (2001) Central venous device-related infection and thrombosis in patients treated with moderate dose continuous-infusion interleukin-2. Cancer 91(4):806–814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. El-Menyar A, Mekkodathil A, Al-Thani H (2017) Diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors: an up-to-date literature review. J Cancer Res Ther 13(6):889–900PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Force USPST (2008) Screening for colorectal cancer: U.S. preventive services task force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med 149(9):627–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Force USPST et al (2016) Screening for colorectal cancer: US preventive services task force recommendation statement. JAMA 315(23):2564–2575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gothlin JH (1988) Modern radiological diagnostics in colorectal cancer. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 149:59–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Harada S, Morlote D (2020) Molecular pathology of colorectal cancer. Adv Anat Pathol 7(1):20–26Google Scholar
  27. Henry CA, Berry RE (1988) Primary lymphoma of the large intestine. Am Surg 54(5):262–266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Herrmann R et al (1980) Gastrointestinal involvement in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Cancer 46(1):215–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ilgenfritz HC, Mathews WR (1955) Carcinoid tumors of the gastro-intestinal tract. Ann Surg 141(6):807–818CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Issa IA, Noureddine M (2017) Colorectal cancer screening: an updated review of the available options. World J Gastroenterol 23(28):5086–5096CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Kalyan A et al (2018) Updates on immunotherapy for colorectal cancer. J Gastrointest Oncol 9(1):160–169CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Kim US, Papatestas AE, Aufses AH Jr (1976) Prognostic significance of peripheral lymphocyte counts and carcinoembryonic antigens in colorectal carcinoma. J Surg Oncol 8(3):257–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Klebanoff CA et al (2011) Therapeutic cancer vaccines: are we there yet? Immunol Rev 239(1):27–44CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Koch P et al (2001) Primary gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: I. anatomic and histologic distribution, clinical features, and survival data of 371 patients registered in the German multicenter study GIT NHL 01/92. J Clin Oncol 19(18):3861–3873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Koelzer VH, Zlobec I, Lugli A (2016) Tumor budding in colorectal cancer–ready for diagnostic practice? Hum Pathol 47(1):4–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Koido S et al (2000) Induction of antitumor immunity by vaccination of dendritic cells transfected with MUC1 RNA. J Immunol 165(10):5713–5719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lee DH, Lee JM (2017) Whole-body PET/MRI for colorectal cancer staging: is it the way forward? J Magn Reson Imaging 45(1):21–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lee HS et al (2017) Molecular testing for gastrointestinal cancer. J Pathol Transl Med 51(2):103–121CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Levin B et al (2008a) Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US multi-society task force on colorectal cancer, and the American College of Radiology. CA Cancer J Clin 58(3):130–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Levin B et al (2008b) Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps, 2008: a joint guideline from the American Cancer Society, the US multi-society task force on colorectal cancer, and the American College of Radiology. Gastroenterology 134(5):1570–1595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Li J et al (2016) Point mutations in exon 1B of APC reveal gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach as a familial adenomatous polyposis variant. Am J Hum Genet 98(5):830–842CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Liu B et al (1996) Analysis of mismatch repair genes in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer patients. Nat Med 2(2):169–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lohmueller J, Finn OJ (2017) Current modalities in cancer immunotherapy: Immunomodulatory antibodies, CARs and vaccines. Pharmacol Ther 178:31–47CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Lugli A et al (2017) Recommendations for reporting tumor budding in colorectal cancer based on the international tumor budding consensus conference (ITBCC) 2016. Mod Pathol 30(9):1299–1311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lynch HT, Smyrk T (1996) Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome). An updated review. Cancer 78(6):1149–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lynch HT et al (1990a) Phenotypic variation in colorectal adenoma/cancer expression in two families. Hereditary flat adenoma syndrome. Cancer 66(5):909–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lynch HT et al (1990b) Genetic diagnosis of Lynch syndrome II in an extended colorectal cancer-prone family. Cancer 66(10):2233–2238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Machi J et al (1987) Intraoperative ultrasonography in screening for liver metastases from colorectal cancer: comparative accuracy with traditional procedures. Surgery 101(6):678–684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Mahar AL et al (2017) Personalizing prognosis in colorectal cancer: a systematic review of the quality and nature of clinical prognostic tools for survival outcomes. J Surg Oncol 116(8):969–982CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Maher SG et al (2008) IFNalpha and IFNlambda differ in their antiproliferative effects and duration of JAK/STAT signaling activity. Cancer Biol Ther 7(7):1109–1115CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. Marur S et al (2010) HPV-associated head and neck cancer: a virus-related cancer epidemic. Lancet Oncol 11(8):781–789CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Matsui O et al (1987) Liver metastases from colorectal cancers: detection with CT during arterial portography. Radiology 165(1):65–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mazzola P et al (2008) Epidemiology and molecular biology of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): a population-based study in the south of Switzerland, 1999-2005. Histol Histopathol 23(11):1379–1386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. McCloskey CW et al (2018) Ovarian cancer immunotherapy: preclinical models and emerging therapeutics. Cancers (Basel) 10(8):244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Min KW, Leabu M (2006) Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST): facts, speculations, and myths. J Cell Mol Med 10(4):995–1013CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Mosolits S, Nilsson B, Mellstedt H (2005) Towards therapeutic vaccines for colorectal carcinoma: a review of clinical trials. Expert Rev Vaccines 4(3):329–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Muto T, Bussey HJ, Morson BC (1975) The evolution of cancer of the colon and rectum. Cancer 36(6):2251–2270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Myers G (2018) Immune-related adverse events of immune checkpoint inhibitors: a brief review. Curr Oncol 25(5):342–347CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Nasseri Y, Langenfeld SJ (2017) Imaging for colorectal cancer. Surg Clin North Am 97(3):503–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nestle FO et al (1998) Vaccination of melanoma patients with peptide- or tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells. Nat Med 4(3):328–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Northover JM, Murday V (1989) Familial colorectal cancer and familial adenomatous polyposis. Baillieres Clin Gastroenterol 3(3):593–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Palmer KJ et al (2000) Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) stimulates anti-melanoma cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) generation in mixed lymphocyte tumour cultures (MLTC). Clin Exp Immunol 119(3):412–418CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Perica K et al (2015) Adoptive T cell immunotherapy for cancer. Rambam Maimonides Med J 6(1):e0004CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Potter JD, McMichael AJ (1986) Diet and cancer of the colon and rectum: a case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 76(4):557–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Prendergast GC et al (2018) Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase and its therapeutic inhibition in cancer. Int Rev Cell Mol Biol 336:175–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Raut CP, Morgan JA, Ashley SW (2007) Current issues in gastrointestinal stromal tumors: incidence, molecular biology, and contemporary treatment of localized and advanced disease. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 23(2):149–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rossi M et al (2018) Colorectal cancer and alcohol consumption-populations to molecules. Cancers (Basel) 10(2):38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Schlag P et al (1992) Active specific immunotherapy with Newcastle-disease-virus-modified autologous tumor cells following resection of liver metastases in colorectal cancer. First evaluation of clinical response of a phase II-trial. Cancer Immunol Immunother 35(5):325–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Schulze T et al (2009) Efficiency of adjuvant active specific immunization with Newcastle disease virus modified tumor cells in colorectal cancer patients following resection of liver metastases: results of a prospective randomized trial. Cancer Immunol Immunother 58(1):61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sedykh SE et al (2018) Bispecific antibodies: design, therapy, perspectives. Drug Des Devel Ther 12:195–208CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. Segnan N et al (2005) Randomized trial of different screening strategies for colorectal cancer: patient response and detection rates. J Natl Cancer Inst 97(5):347–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sepulveda AR et al (2017) Molecular biomarkers for the evaluation of colorectal cancer: guideline from the American Society for Clinical Pathology, College of American Pathologists, Association for Molecular Pathology, and the American Society of Clinical Oncology. J Clin Oncol 35(13):1453–1486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shinya H, Wolff WI (1979) Morphology, anatomic distribution and cancer potential of colonic polyps. Ann Surg 190(6):679–683CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. Siegel RL et al (2017) Colorectal cancer statistics, 2017. CA Cancer J Clin 67(3):177–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A (2019) Cancer statistics, 2019. CA Cancer J Clin 69(1):7–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Singh PP et al (2015) Immune checkpoints and immunotherapy for colorectal cancer. Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) 3(4):289–297Google Scholar
  77. Swerdlow SH et al (2016) The 2016 revision of the world health organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms. Blood 127(20):2375–2390CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Terme M et al (2013) VEGFA-VEGFR pathway blockade inhibits tumor-induced regulatory T-cell proliferation in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res 73(2):539–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Trombold J, Farmer RW, McCafferty M (2013) The impact of colorectal cancer screening in a veteran hospital population. Am Surg 79(3):296–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Uyl-de Groot CA et al (2005) Immunotherapy with autologous tumor cell-BCG vaccine in patients with colon cancer: a prospective study of medical and economic benefits. Vaccine 23(17–18):2379–2387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Valle L et al (2019) Genetic predisposition to colorectal cancer: syndromes, genes, classification of genetic variants and implications for precision medicine. J Pathol 247(5):574–588CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Vermorken JB et al (1999) Active specific immunotherapy for stage II and stage III human colon cancer: a randomised trial. Lancet 353(9150):345–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Weng YJ et al (1996) Carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract in Chinese of Taiwan: an analysis of fifty cases. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei) 58(4):254–258Google Scholar
  84. Winawer SJ, Sherlock P (1976) Approach to screening and diagnosis in colorectal cancer. Semin Oncol 3(4):387–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Wu X, Lin H, Li S (2019) Prognoses of different pathological subtypes of colorectal cancer at different stages: a population-based retrospective cohort study. BMC Gastroenterol 19(1):164CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. Yasunaga M et al (2019) Significant antitumor effect of an antibody against TMEM180, a new colorectal cancer-specific molecule. Cancer Sci 110(2):761–770CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christoffer B. Lambring
    • 1
  • Chloe Smith
    • 2
  • Sohail Siraj
    • 1
  • Krishna Patel
    • 1
  • Riyaz Basha
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Texas College of Osteopathic Medicine, UNT Health Science CenterFort WorthUSA
  2. 2.Old Dominion UniversityNorfolkUSA

Personalised recommendations