General Theoretical Impact Model to Ensure the Safety and Management of Mammals During Dam Development

  • Nazron Nur SyuhadaEmail author
  • M. I. NurAmalina
  • M. N. NurulAdyla
  • M. S. Aisah
  • A. R. Siti Nur Hajar
  • R. Nadine
  • Md. Nor ShukorEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Water Resources Development and Management book series (WRDM)


The rising demand for electricity has pushed at the boundaries of forest reserves to make way for hydroelectric dams, particularly in Malaysia, a country with a rapidly growing socioeconomic sector. Hydroelectric dams reduce forest habitats and displace animals, particularly small and medium-sized mammals, which are often overlooked. A study was conducted in the area of the Hulu Terengganu Hydroelectric Project (HTHEP), Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia, in which animals that were observed, trapped, removed and rescued were used to generate a general theoretical impact model for the safety and management of such mammals during dam development. Traps were placed in the inundation area during the pre-construction, construction and inundation phases of the HTHEP. Various stages of forest destruction, such as selective logging, rapid logging and inundation that occurred during the dam development resulted in changing species compositions. A total of 38 species were recorded during the pre-construction phase, followed by 23 species during construction and 30 species during the inundation phase. The abundance of small and medium-sized mammals increased during the construction phase due to the invasive Rattus spp. (house and wood rats), while species numbers decreased due to rapid logging. The number of species rescued increased rapidly during the inundation phase as the animals became trapped in patches of forest. The general theoretical impact model generated can be used to assist in conservation and environmental management efforts to ensure the future sustainability of dam development projects.


Hydroelectric dams Conservation Small and medium mammal Rescue programme 



This research was funded by the Tenaga Nasional Berhad Research Sdn. Bhd. under grant no.BG-R-STAP001-00-0000000-B21101, in collaboration with the Department of Wildlife and National Parks, Peninsular Malaysia (PERHILITAN) and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). The authors would like to acknowledge the forest rangers of PERHILITAN and the research assistants of UKM at the Wildlife Research and Rescue Center (WILDREC) for their immense contributions.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nazron Nur Syuhada
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. I. NurAmalina
    • 1
  • M. N. NurulAdyla
    • 1
  • M. S. Aisah
    • 2
  • A. R. Siti Nur Hajar
    • 3
  • R. Nadine
    • 4
  • Md. Nor Shukor
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversiti Kebangsaan MalaysiaBangiMalaysia
  2. 2.Tenaga Nasional Berhad Research Sdn. Bhd.Kawasan Institusi PenyelidikanKajangMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Wildlife and National ParksPeninsular Malaysia (DWNP)Kuala LumpurMalaysia
  4. 4.School of Biological SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia

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