Sari System: A Traditional Cropping Pattern of the Uttarakhand Himalaya

  • Satish Chandra
  • Dinesh Chandra
  • Rajkumar Pandey
  • Arun Kumar Khajuria
  • Vivek Kumar
  • Pankaj Bhatt
Part of the Rhizosphere Biology book series (RHBIO)


The advent of agriculture changed the pathway of human evolution. Agriculture was invented in the different cradle sites and dispersed subsequently in different parts of the globe. Ethnic people of different areas practised agriculture differently. They cultivated crops suited for their areas and developed different agriculture practices as per the climatic conditions. The Himalayan region is endowed with enormous biodiversity including various wild relatives and landraces. People of the Uttarakhand Himalaya developed a special practice of agriculture known as Sari system. In this, people cultivate crops on a 2-year rotation. In the first year, during Rabi season, wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare) and lentil (Lens culinaris) are sown. While in the Kharif season, rice (Oryza sativa) and barnyard millet (Echinochloa frumentacea) are cultivated as mixed crop. In the next Kharif season, nearly 12 or more crops (including finger millet, amaranth and legumes) are cultivated in the intermixed pattern. In this practice, culm of millets and stem of amaranth provide support to the growing legumes, and in exchange, legumes fix atmospheric N2 and provide nourishment to other crops. Apart from this, the traditional crop rotation system also helps in the efficient use of rainwater, improve soil health and increase crop productivity. This system also acts as insurance for small landholding farmers in case of failure of a particular crop. In such conditions, other crops growing in an intermixed manner compensate the economic loss of the farmers. Outmigration of people from villages and monoculture of cash crops are major threats to this traditional practice. The present chapter is focused on different aspects of the Sari system.


Agriculture Barahnaja Livelihood Sar Traditional knowledge Traditional practices 



The authors are thankful to the all farmers, who are practising traditional Sari system of agriculture. It is their selfless effort for the conservation of traditional knowledge, traditional practices and local landraces.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Satish Chandra
    • 1
  • Dinesh Chandra
    • 2
  • Rajkumar Pandey
    • 3
  • Arun Kumar Khajuria
    • 4
  • Vivek Kumar
    • 5
  • Pankaj Bhatt
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of BotanyGovernment Degree College TiuniDehradunIndia
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesCBSH, G. B. Pant University Agriculture and TechnologyPantnagarIndia
  3. 3.Department of MicrobiologyCBSH, G. B. Pant University Agriculture and TechnologyPantnagarIndia
  4. 4.Department of BotanyGovernment Degree College KathuaKathuaIndia
  5. 5.Department of BotanyGovernment P.G. CollegeChampawatIndia
  6. 6.State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Microbial Signals and Disease ControlIntegrative Microbiology Research Centre, South China Agricultural UniversityGuangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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