Waste Recycling in a Developing Context: Economic Implications of an EU-Separate Collection Scheme
- 33 Downloads
This study assesses the economic viability of implementing a successful developed economy-based separate collection scheme in a developing economy test area while taking into consideration different influential factors. Two scenarios with different intensities of source segregated (SS) materials were simulated to compare the overall collection cost in developing versus developed economies while considering the variation in waste composition. The SS efficiencies were calculated based on a successful source separation scheme implemented in a developed economy. Scenario S1 reflects a policy towards separation of paper and packaging waste with an overall SS intensity of 13% in the test area in comparison with 25% in the developed economy. Scenario S2 considered an increase in the overall SS intensity that reached 68% in the test area in comparison with 48% in developed economy, when considering the separation of organic waste. The results showed that in the test area, an increase in SS intensity from 13% up to 68% caused a significant reduction in residual municipal solid waste but a consequent increase in the overall collection cost reaching up to ~44%. The developing economy exhibited significantly lower (63–84%) collection costs in comparison with developed economy, mainly due to significantly lower personnel cost. Variation in waste composition caused a major difference in the overall collection cost between developing and developed economies, depending on waste density, collection vehicles load, and compaction ratio. For instance, the collection of low-density waste (e.g. light packaging) resulted in lower fuel consumption and collection cost (up to 83%) in developing economies in comparison with higher fractions in developed economies.
KeywordsWaste separation Waste collection 3R concept Economic assessment Developing context
This study is supported through joint funding from the National Council for Scientific Research (NCSR) and American University of Beirut (AUB). Special thanks are extended to Dar Al-Handasah (Shair & Partners) for its support to the graduate programs in Engineering at AUB.
- CDR. (2010). Progress report on contracts related to sweeping, collection, treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste in Greater Beirut and surroundings (Contract No11707). Beirut, Lebanon: CDR.Google Scholar
- Council Directive. (1991). Directive 91/156/EEC of 18 March 1991 amending directive 75/442/EEC on waste, OJ L 194, 25.7.1975, p. 39 and OJ L 78, 26.3.1991, p. 32.Google Scholar
- Di Maria, F. D., & Micale, C. (2014). A holistic life cycle analysis of waste management scenarios at increasing source segregation intensity: The case of an Italian urban area. Waste Management, 34(11), 2382–2392.Google Scholar
- Everett, J. W., Maratha, S., Dorairaj, R., & Riley, P. (1998a). Curbside collection of recyclables. I. Route time estimation model. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 22, 177–192.Google Scholar
- Gundupalli, S. P., Hait, S., & Thakur, A., (2017). A review on automated sorting of source-separated municipal solid waste for recycling. Waste Management, 60, 56–74.Google Scholar
- Kaza, S., Yao, L.C., Bhada-Tata, P., & Woerden, F. V. (2018). What a waste 2.0: A global snapshot of solid waste management to 2050. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
- Laceco/Ramboll. (2012). Preparation of pre-qualification documents and tender documents for solid waste management in lebanon, sub Report 1. Baseline Study, Beirut, Lebanon: CDR.Google Scholar
- Maalouf, A., & El-Fadel, M. (2019a). Life cycle assessment for solid waste management in Lebanon: Economic implications of carbon credit. Waste Management & Research, 37(Supplement), 14–26.Google Scholar
- Maalouf, A., & El-Fadel, M. (2019b). Towards improving emissions accounting methods in waste management: A proposed framework. Journal of Cleaner Production, 206, 197–210.Google Scholar
- Miller Associates. (1999). Project INTEGRA research, attitudes and behaviour, Report 1: Main findings. Report for the Project Integra Household Waste Research Programme, Hampshire County Council, UK.Google Scholar
- UN Habitat. (2010). Collection of municipal solid waste in developing countries. United Nations human settlement programme (UN Habitat), Nairobi, Kenya.Google Scholar