Advertisement

Circular Economy Approach to Women Empowerment Through Reusing Treated Rural Wastewater Using Constructed Wetlands

  • B. LekshmiEmail author
  • Shruti Sharma
  • Rahul S. Sutar
  • Yogen J. Parikh
  • Dilip R. Ranade
  • Shyam R. AsolekarEmail author
Chapter
  • 20 Downloads

Abstract

Integrating environmental activity and economic development is one of the key milestones in the circular economy. There is an urgent need for developing countries like India to step path towards a circular economy for its sustainable development and environmental improvement. Water industry in India, there should move towards a circular economy model from the linear economy model. To functionalize circular economy through rural development, a new sustainable business model has been proposed in this study by employing natural treatment systems for wastewater treatment. Natural treatment systems especially constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment and reuse are the eco-friendliest technologies currently practised worldwide. In India, there is a lack of successful demonstrations in the field of wastewater treatment using constructed wetland and its gainful utilisation. In this present study, a successful circular economy model is demonstrated through the case study in Mhaswad Town which is located in District of Satara, State of Maharashtra and has a population of ~35,000. Wastewater generated (max 250 m3/d) from half Mhaswad population, i.e. ~14,000 is treated using horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland which is “CW4Reuse” technology developed by IIT Bombay. The treatment plant consists of settling tank followed by nine beds of constructed wetland treatment units. Currently, the treatment plant is meeting the standards for treated water recommended by the pollution control board. The treatment plant is operated by women members of a cooperative society in Mhaswad. It is envisaged that the cooperative society will be trading the treated water for profit and thus they will be earning money through waste management. The model predicts net positive gain by treating wastewater through constructed wetland compared to conventional treatment method. This will facilitate rural development as well as women empowerment by implementing eco-centric treatment technology.

Keywords

Wastewater treatment Water reuse Natural treatment systems Constructed wetlands Circular economy Rural development 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors of this paper gratefully acknowledge the funding obtained from the two agencies for this research, namely: Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB) and Rajiv Gandhi Science and Technology Commission (RGSTC).

References

  1. Abu-Ghunmi, D., Abu-Ghunmi, L., Kayal, B., & Bino, A. (2016). Circular economy and the opportunity cost of not ‘closing the loop’ of water industry: The case of Jordan. Journal of Cleaner Production, 131, 228–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adyel, T. M., Oldham, C. E., & Hipsey, M. R. (2016). Stormwater nutrient attenuation in a constructed wetland with alternating surface and subsurface flow pathways: Event to annual dynamics. Water Research, 107, 66–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arceivala, S. J., & Asolekar, S. R. (2007). Wastewater treatment for pollution control and reuse (3rd ed., 11th Reprint). New Delhi: McGraw Hill Education India Pvt. Ltd.Google Scholar
  4. Asolekar, S. R., & Gopichandran, R. (2005). Preventive environmental management—An Indian Perspective. New Delhi: Foundation Books Pvt. Ltd. (The Indian associate of Cambridge University Press, UK).Google Scholar
  5. Billore, S. K., Singh, N., Ram, H. K., Sharma, J. K., Singh, V. P., Nelson, R. M., et al. (2001). Treatment of a molasses based distillery effluent in a constructed wetland in central India. Water Science and Technology, 44(11–12), 441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bustamante, M. A. O., Mier, M. V., Estrada, J. A. E., & Domíguez, C. D. (2011). Nitrogen and potassium variation on contaminant removal for a vertical subsurface flow lab scale constructed wetland. Bioresource Technology, 102(17), 7745–7754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Butterworth, E., Richards, A., Jones, M., Mansi, G., Ranieri, E., Dotro, G., et al. (2016). Performance of four full-scale artificially aerated horizontal flow constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment. Water, 8(9), 365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eshetu Moges, M., Todt, D., & Heistad, A. (2018). Treatment of source-separated blackwater: A decentralized strategy for nutrient recovery towards a circular economy. Water, 10(4), 463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. EU Commission. (2015). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, The Council, The European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, Closing the Loop—An EU Action Plan for the Circular Economy.Google Scholar
  10. Henrichs, M., Langergraber, G., & Uhl, M. (2007). Modelling of organic matter degradation in constructed wetlands for treatment of combined sewer overflow. Science of the Total Environment, 380(1–3), 196–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hu, Y., He, F., Ma, L., Zhang, Y., & Wu, Z. (2016). Microbial nitrogen removal pathways in integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland systems. Bioresource Technology, 207, 339–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kadlec, R. H., & Wallace, S. (2009). Treatment wetlands. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  13. Kivaisi, A. K. (2001). The potential for constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment and reuse in developing countries: A review. Ecological Engineering, 16(4), 545–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kumar, D., & Asolekar, S. R. (2016). Experiences with laboratory and pilot scale constructed wetlands for treatment of domestic wastewaters and effluents. Natural Water Treatment Systems for Safe and Sustainable Water Supply in the Indian Context: Saph Pani, 149.Google Scholar
  15. Kumar, D., Asolekar, S. R., & Sharma, S. K. (2015a). Post-treatment and reuse of secondary effluents using natural treatment systems: The Indian practices. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187, 612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kumar, D., Chaturvedi, M. K. M., Sharma, S. K., & Asolekar, S. R. (2015b). Sewage-fed aquaculture: A sustainable approach for wastewater treatment and reuse. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187, 656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kumar, D., Sharma, S. K., & Asolekar, S. R. (2016). Significance of incorporating constructed wetlands to enhance reuse of treated wastewater in India. Natural Water Treatment Systems for Safe and Sustainable Water Supply in the Indian Context: Saph Pani, 161.Google Scholar
  18. Mahmood, Q., Pervez, A., Zeb, B. S., Zaffar, H., Yaqoob, H., Waseem, M., et al. (2013). Natural treatment systems as sustainable ecotechnologies for the developing countries. BioMed Research International.Google Scholar
  19. Masi, F., Bresciani, R., Rizzo, A., & Conte, G. (2017). Constructed wetlands for combined sewer overflow treatment: Ecosystem services at Gorla Maggiore, Italy. Ecological Engineering, 98, 427–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Masi, F., Rizzo, A., & Regelsberger, M. (2018). The role of constructed wetlands in a new circular economy, resource oriented, and ecosystem services paradigm. Journal of Environmental Management, 216, 275–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Masullo, A. (2017). Organic wastes management in a circular economy approach: Rebuilding the link between urban and rural areas. Ecological Engineering, 101, 84–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mojiri, A., Ziyang, L., Tajuddin, R. M., Farraji, H., & Alifar, N. (2016). Co-treatment of landfill leachate and municipal wastewater using the ZELIAC/zeolite constructed wetland system. Journal of Environmental Management, 166, 124–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Sartori, L., Canobbio, S., Fornaroli, R., Cabrini, R., Marazzi, F., & Mezzanotte, V. (2016). COD, nutrient removal and disinfection efficiency of a combined subsurface and surface flow constructed wetland: A case study. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 18(4), 416–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Starkl, M., Amerasinghe, P., Essl, L., Jampani, M., Kumar, D., & Asolekar, S. R. (2013). Potential of natural treatment technologies for wastewater management in India. Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 3(4), 500–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tatoulis, T., Stefanakis, A. I., Akratos, C. S., Terkerlekopoulou, A., Gianni, A., Zacharias, I., et al. (2015, September). Treatment of agro-industrial wastewaters using novel horizontal subsurface constructed wetlands. In 6th International Symposium on Wetland Pollutant Dynamics and Control, York, UK (pp. 13–18).Google Scholar
  26. van der Hoek, J. P., de Fooij, H., & Struker, A. (2016). Wastewater as a resource: Strategies to recover resources from Amsterdam’s wastewater. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 113, 53–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Vymazal, J. (2007). Removal of nutrients in various types of constructed wetlands. Science of the Total Environment, 380(1–3), 48–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Vymazal, J. (2010). Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Water, 2(3), 530–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Vymazal, J. (2011). Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: Five decades of experience. Environmental Science and Technology, 45(1), 61–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Vymazal, J. (2014). Constructed wetlands for treatment of industrial wastewaters: A review. Ecological Engineering, 73, 724–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Vymazal, J., & Březinová, T. (2015). The use of constructed wetlands for removal of pesticides from agricultural runoff and drainage: A review. Environment International, 75, 11–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Vymazal, J., Brix, H., Cooper, P. F., Haberl, R., Perfler, R., & Laber, J. (1998). Removal mechanisms and types of constructed wetlands. In: Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in Europe (pp. 17–66).Google Scholar
  33. Wang, W., Ding, Y., Ullman, J. L., Ambrose, R. F., Wang, Y., Song, X., et al. (2016). Nitrogen removal performance in planted and unplanted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating different influent COD/N ratios. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23(9), 9012–9018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Xinshan, S., Qin, L., & Denghua, Y. (2010). Nutrient removal by hybrid subsurface flow constructed wetlands for high concentration ammonia nitrogen wastewater. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 2, 1461–1468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhang, D. Q., Jinadasa, K. B. S. N., Gersberg, R. M., Liu, Y., Ng, W. J., & Tan, S. K. (2014). Application of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in developing countries—A review of recent developments (2000–2013). Journal of Environmental Management, 141, 116–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhang, Y., Lv, T., Carvalho, P. N., Zhang, L., Arias, C. A., Chen, Z., et al. (2017). Ibuprofen and iohexol removal in saturated constructed wetland mesocosms. Ecological Engineering, 98, 394–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Lekshmi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shruti Sharma
    • 1
  • Rahul S. Sutar
    • 1
  • Yogen J. Parikh
    • 1
  • Dilip R. Ranade
    • 1
  • Shyam R. Asolekar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Centre for Environmental Science & EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology BombayMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations