Advertisement

Facebook and Polícia de Segurança Pública: An Exploratory Study of Follower’s Engagement

  • Sónia M. A. MorgadoEmail author
  • Tiago Moniz
  • Sérgio Felgueiras
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 167)

Abstract

The engagement with social networks promotes a flow of information for users and owners of the social media pages. Even in law enforcement agencies, it’s necessary to evaluate the interaction of social media users. As a first approach to this subject, this study describes the engagement of the followers with the Facebook page of Polícia de Segurança Pública. An exploratory study was done, sustained by an online survey, resulting in 2.311 operational responses from the followers. Our results are displayed according to the different types of engagement: cognitive, behavioural and emotional and the global one. The cognitive and emotional engagement stands out in the analysis. Furthermore, the analysis of the result shows that global engagement is positive. The sample is mainly composed of feminine elements, with a university degree, and that spends more or less on to four hours a day on social media. The findings can be useful for the communication and public relations department of PSP to evaluate the social media strategy that has been followed.

Keywords

Consumer behaviour Engagement Facebook Polícia de segurança Pública Social media 

References

  1. 1.
    Castells, M.: A Sociedade em Rede, 4th edn. Gulbenkian, Lisboa (2012)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Morgado, S.M.A., Ferraz, R.: Social media: facebook e a gestão policial no planeamento de grandes eventos. Int. J. Mark. Commun. New Media (Special Number 1—QRMCNM) 27–47 (2016)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Antonius, N., Rich, L.: Discovering collection and analysis techniques for social media to improve public safety. Int. Technol. Manage. Rev. 3(1), 42–53 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.2991/itmr.2013.3.1.4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Storey, D.J.: Understanding the small business sector. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1496214. Last Accessed 29 July 2019 (1994)
  5. 5.
    Ryan, L., Leong, M.: Engaging the new consumer. In: Esomar Asia Pacific Conference 2007, pp. 1–5. ESOMAR, Singapura (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Morgado, S.: Going global: health organizations and networking—information society and social media. In: Proceedings in Scientific Conference 2013, vol. 1, pp. 47–51. EDIS—Publishing Institution of the University of Sikina, Slovakia (2013)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Waters, M.: Globalização. Celta Editora, Oeiras (1999)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Morgado, S.M.A., Ferraz, R.: Análise de conteúdo e pesquisa em ciências policiais: Contextualização em ambiente virtual, Facebook, e o planeamento de grandes eventos. Atas CIAIQ/2016—Investigação Qualitativa em Ciências Sociais 3, 600–608 (2016)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Morgado, S.M.A., Ferraz, R.: Social media: facebook and police major planning events. Int. J. Mark. Commun. New Media 1(Special number—QRMCNM), 27–47 (2016)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ferraz, R.: Facebook e o planeamento de grandes eventos: Um contributo operacional na área das informações (Unpublished Master’s thesis). ISCPSI, Lisboa (2015)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bullock, L.: 6 Predictions for content marketing in 2017. https://www.socialmediatoday.com/marketing/6-predictions-content-marketing-2017 (2016). Last Accessed 08 July 2019
  12. 12.
    Cleveland, J., Holder, K., O’Roark, B.: The economics of hunger games. Int. J. Pluralism Econ. Educ. 7(2), 152–169 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1504/IJPEE.2016.078860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Castells, M.: A sociedade em rede: Do conhecimento à política. In: Castells, M., Cardoso, G. (orgs.), A sociedade em rede: do conhecimento à acção política. Debates–Presidência da República, pp. 17–30. Imprensa Nacional, Lisboa (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Castells, M.: Communication, power and counter-power in the network society. Int. J. Commun. 1(1), 238–266 (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hiremath, B., Kenchakkanavar, A.: An alteration of the Web 1.0, Web 2.0 and Web 3.0: a comparative study. Imperial J. Interdisc. Res. 2, 705–710 (2016)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Choudhury, N.: World Wide Web and its journey from Web 1.0 to Web 4.0. Int. J. Comput. Sci. Inf. Technol. 5(6), 8096–8100 (2014)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Harrison, T., Barthel, B.: Wielding new media in Web 2.0: exploring the history of engagement with the collaborative construction of media products. New Media Soc. 11(1–2), 155–178.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444808099580 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    O’Reilly, T.: What is Web 2.0: design patterns and business models for the next generation of software. http://www.oreilly.com/pub/a//web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html (2005). Last Accessed 25 June 2019
  19. 19.
    Dwivedi, Y., Williams, M., Mitra, A., Niranjan, S., Weerakkody, V.: Understanding advances in web technologies: evolution from Web 2.0 to Web 3.0. In: 19th European Conference on Information Systems. ECIS 2011, pp. 1–13. ECIS, Helsinki (2011)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fuchs, C., Hofkirchner, W., Schafranek, M., Raffl, C., Sandoval, M., Bichler, R.: Theoretical foundations of the web: cognition, communication, and co-operation. towards an understanding of Web 1.0, 2.0, 3.0. Future Internet 2(1), 41–59.  https://doi.org/10.3390/fi2010041 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Song, F.W.: Theorizing Web 2.0: a cultural perspective. Inf. Commun. Soc. 13(2), 249–275.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13691180902914610 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hendler, J.: Web 3.0 emerging. Computer 42(1), 88–90.  https://doi.org/10.1109/mc.2009.30 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Floridi, L.: Web 2.0 vs. the semantic web: a philosophical assessment. Episteme 6(1), 25–37.  https://doi.org/10.3366/e174236000800052x (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Berners-Lee, T., Cailliau, R., Groff, R., Pollermann, B.: World Wide Web: the information universe. Electron. Netw. Res. Appl. Policy 2(1), 52–58 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Aghaei, S., Nematbakhsh, M.A., Farsani, H.K.: Evolution of the World Wide Web: from Web 1.0 to Web 4.0. Int. J. Web Semant. Technol. 3(1), 1–10.  https://doi.org/10.5121/ijwest.2012.3101 (2012)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    INE: Censos 2011, https://censos.ine.pt/ (2015). Last Accessed 01 October 2019
  27. 27.
    Weinberg, T.: The new community rules: marketing on the social web. O’Reilly Media, Inc. (2009)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cooke, M., Buckley, N.: Web 2.0, social networks and the future of market research. Int. J. Mark. Res. 50(2), 267–292 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Smith, T.: The social media revolution. Int. J. Mark. Res. 51(4), 559–561 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.2501/S1470785309200773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Garton, L., Haythornthwaite, C., Wellman, B.: Studying online social networks. J. Comput. Med. Commun. 3(1), 1–32.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.1997.tb00062.x (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kozinets, R.V., de Valck, K., Wojnicki, A.C., Wilner, S.J.: Networked narratives: understanding word-of-mouth marketing in online communities. J. Mark. 74(2), 71–89 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.74.2.71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kucuk, U.: Consumer empowerment model: from unspeakable to undeniable. Dir. Mark. Int. J. 3(4), 327–342 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1108/17505930911000892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rodrigues, S.: O impacto das redes sociais no relacionamento entre marcas e consumidores (Unpublished Master’s thesis). ISCTE-UL, Lisboa (2012)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shcherbina, I.: Reading in the age of Web 2.0. Russ. Soc. Sci. Rev. 58(1), 86–108.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10611428.2017.1275204 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Toffler, A.: The Third Wave. Bantan Books, New York (1980)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lévy, P.: O futuro da internet: Em direção a uma ciberdemocracia planetária. Paulus, São (1999)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pires, G.D., Stanton, J., Rita, P.: The internet, consumer empowerment and marketing strategies. Eur. J. Mark. 40(9/10), 936–949 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560610680943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kietzmann, J.H., Hermkens, K., McCarthy, I.P., Silvestre, B.S.: Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media. Bus. Horiz. 54(3), 241–251 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2011.01.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Reynolds, K.E., Beatty, S.E.: Customer benefits and company consequences of customer-salesperson relationships in retailing. J. Retail. 75(1), 11–32 (1999).  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-4359(99)80002-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Global Web Index: Global Web Index’s Quarterly Report on the Latest Trends in Social Networking https://www.globalwebindex.net/hs-fs/hub/304927/file-2812772150-pdf/Reports/GWI_Social_Summary_Report_Q1_2015.pdf (2015). Last Accessed 15 Dec 2017
  41. 41.
    Statista: Number of Facebook Users Worldwide 2008–2017 https://www.statista.com/statistics/264810/number-of-monthly-active-Facebook-users-worldwide/. Last Accessed 15 Dec 2017
  42. 42.
    Drury, G.: Social media: should marketers engage and how can it be done effectively? J. Dir. Data Digit. Mark. Pract. 9(3), 274–277 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.dddmp.4350096CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Heinonen, K.: Consumer activity in social media: managerial approaches to consumers’ social media behavior: consumer activity in social media. J. Consum. Behav. 10(6), 356–364 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Simmons, K.S.: Intergenerational communication in the workplace. Online J. Certif. Manag. (2008)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Castilho, A.S., Antunes, M.J.: Modelo de gestão de conteúdos nos social media: os estudos de casos das startups. Revista Comunicando 12, 102–123 (2013)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    De Vries, L., Gensler, S., Leeflang, P.S.H.: Popularity of brand posts on brand fan pages: an investigation of the effects of social media marketing. J. Interact. Mark. 26(2), 83–91 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intmar.2012.01.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Malhotra, A., Malhotra, C. K., See, A.: How to Create Brand Engagement on Facebook. https://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/how-to-create-brand-engagement-on-Facebook/. Last Accessed 25 May 2019
  48. 48.
    Facebook: Política de Dados. https://www.Facebook.com/policy.php. Last Accessed 25 May 2019
  49. 49.
    Kirkpatrick, D.: The Facebook Effect: the Inside Story of the Company that is Connecting the World, 1st edn. Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, New York (2011)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chan, T.K.H., Zheng, X., Cheung, C.M.K., Lee, M.K.O., Lee, Z.W.Y.: Antecedents and consequences of customer engagement in online brand communities. J. Mark. Anal. 2(2), 81–97 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1057/jma.2014.9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Berry, L.L.: Relationship marketing of services perspectives from 1983 and 2000. J. Relat. Mark. 1(1), 59–77 (2002).  https://doi.org/10.1300/J366v01n01_05MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Duncan, T.: IMC: using advertising and promotion to build brands, 1st edn. McGraw-Hill, Boston (2002)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Silva, R.: Relações públicas policiais em ambiente virtual (Unpublished Master’s thesis). ISCPSI, Lisboa (2014)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Moniz, T.: O engagement dos utilizadores do Facebook com a página da Polícia de Segurança Pública (Unpublished Master’s thesis). ISCPSI, Lisboa (2018)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wakabayashi, J.L.: Research on relational marketing: an analysis on literature content 2007–2008. Bi-Annu. Acad. Publ. Univ. ESAN 15(29), 119–131 (2010)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gummesson, E.: The new marketing: developing long-term interactive relationships. Long Range Plan. 20(4), 10–20 (1987).  https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-6301(87)90151-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gummesson, E.: Total relationship marketing: experimenting with a synthesis of research frontiers. Aust. Mark. J. (AMJ) 7(1), 72–85 (1999).  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1441-3582(99)70204-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Grönroos, C.: Relationship marketing: strategic and tactical implications. Manag. Decis. 34(3), 5–14 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bowden, J.L.H.: The process of customer engagement: a conceptual framework. J. Mark. Theor. Pract. 17(1), 63–74 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Grégoire, Y., Tripp, T.M., Legoux, R.: When customer love turns into lasting hate: the effects of relationship strength and time on customer revenge and avoidance. J. Mark. 73(6), 18–32 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.73.6.18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Patterson, P., Yu, T., De Ruyter, K: Understanding customer engagement in services. In: Proceedings of ANZMAC 2006 Conference Advancing Theory, Maintaining Relevance, pp. 4–6. ANZMAC, Brisbane (2006)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Pham, M.T., Avnet, T.: Rethinking regulatory engagement theory. J. Consum. Psychol. 19(2), 115–123 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2009.02.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Brodie, R.J., Hollebeek, L.D., Smith, S.D.: Engagement: an important bridging concept for the emerging SD logic lexicon. In: 2011 Naples Forum on Service, University of Auckland Business School (2011)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Erat, P., Desouza, K.C., Schäfer-Jugel, A., Kurzawa, M.: Business customer communities and knowledge sharing: exploratory study of critical issues. Eur. J. Inf. Syst. 15(5), 511–524 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.ejis.3000643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hollebeek, L.D.: Demystifying customer brand engagement: exploring the loyalty nexus. J. Mark. Manage. 27(7–8), 785–807 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2010.500132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Vivek, S.D., Beatty, S.E., Dalela, V., Morgan, R.M.: A generalized multidimensional scale for measuring customer engagement. J. Mark. Theor. Pract. 22(4), 401–420 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.2753/MTP1069-6679220404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gambetti, R.C., Graffigna, G.: The concept of engagement: a systematic analysis of the ongoing marketing debate. Int. J. Mark. Res. 52(6), 801–826 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.2501/S1470785310201661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Vivek, S.D., Beatty, S.E., Morgan, R.M.: Customer engagement: exploring customer relationships beyond purchase. J. Mark. Theor. Pract. 20(2), 122–146 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.2753/MTP1069-6679200201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mollen, A., Wilson, H.: Engagement, telepresence and interactivity in online consumer experience: reconciling scholastic and managerial perspectives. J. Bus. Res. 63(9–10), 919–925 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2009.05.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Algesheimer, R., Dholakia, U.M., Herrmann, A.: The social influence of brand community: evidence from european car clubs. J. Mark. 69(3), 19–34 (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.69.3.19.66363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Sashi, C.M.: Customer engagement, buyer-seller relationships, and social media. Manag. Decis. 50(2), 253–272 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1108/00251741211203551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Higgins, E.T., Scholer, A.A.: Engaging the consumer: the science and art of the value creation process. J. Consum. Psychol. 19(2), 100–114 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2009.02.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Calder, B.J., Malthouse, E.C., Schaedel, U.: An experimental study of the relationship between online engagement and advertising effectiveness. J. Interact. Mark. 23(4), 321–331 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intmar.2009.07.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Hollebeek, L.D., Glynn, M.S., Brodie, R.J.: Consumer brand engagement in social media: conceptualization, scale development and validation. J. Interact. Mark. 28(2), 149–165 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intmar.2013.12.00CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hollebeek, L., Chen, T.: Exploring positively-versus negatively-valenced brand engagement: a conceptual model. J. Prod. Brand Manage. 23(1), 62–74 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1108/JPBM-06-2013-0332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Long, K.E.: How Does it Make You Feel?: a Visual Content Analysis of Emotions Portrayed in Consumer Brands’ Images on Social Media. Lunds University, Lunds (2014)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Palmer, A., Koenig-Lewis, N.: An experiential, social network-based approach to direct marketing. Dir. Mark. Int. J. 3(3), 162–176 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1108/17505930910985116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Mangold, W.G., Faulds, D.J.: Social media: the new hybrid element of the promotion mix. Bus. Horiz. 52(4), 357–365 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2009.03.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gensler, S., Völckner, F., Liu-Thompkins, Y., Wiertz, C.: Managing brands in the social media environment. J. Interact. Mark. 27(4), 242–256 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intmar.2013.09.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mendes, S., Morgado, S.: Intelligence services intervention: constraints in Portuguese democratic state. In: Teixeira, N.S., Oliveira, C.S., Lopes, M., Sardinha, B., Santos, A., Macedo, M. (eds.), International Conference on Risks, Security and Citizens: Proceedings/Atas, pp. 285–297. Município de Setúbal, Setúbal (2017)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Morgado, S.M.A., Anjos, O.: Qualitative methodology helping police sciences: building a model for prevention of road fatalities in São Tomé and Principe. In: Costa, A., Reis, L.A., Moreira, A. (eds), Computer Supported Qualitative Research, WCQR 2018. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol. 861, pp. 291–304. Springer, Cham (2019)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Van Doorn, J., Lemon, K.N., Mittal, V., Nass, S., Pick, D., Pirner, P., Verhoef, P.C.: Customer engagement behavior: theoretical foundations and research directions. J. Serv. Res. 13(3), 253–266 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1177/1094670510375599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Leckie, C., Nyadzayo, M.W., Johnson, L.W.: Antecedents of consumer brand engagement and brand loyalty. J. Mark. Manage. 32(5–6), 558–578 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1080/0267257X.2015.1131735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Quivy, R., van Campenhoudt, L.: Manual de investigação em ciências sociais. 2nd edn. Gradiva, Lisboa (2008)Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Tavakol, M., Dennick, R.: Making sense of Cronbach’s alpha. Int. J. Med. Educ. 2, 53–55 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.5116/ijme.4dfb.8dfdCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Nunnally, J.C.: Psychometric Theory, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Morgado, S.M.A.: Does health promote economic growth? Portuguese case study: from dictatorship to full democracy. Eur. J. Health Econ. 15(6), 591–598 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10198-013-0497-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Major Events LaboratoryResearch Center (ICPOL), Instituto Superior de Ciências Policiais e Segurança InternaLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.P.S.PLisbonPortugal

Personalised recommendations