Tactical Approaches to Disclose Influencers’ Advertising Partners

  • Ana Filipa Couto
  • Pedro Quelhas de BritoEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies book series (SIST, volume 167)


This study analyzes the decision-making process of digital influencers pertaining to the promotion of monetary partnerships. We undertook fifteen interviews with Instagram influencers from different lifestyle orientations and business profiles. The content analysis allowed us to identify four determinant dimensions of decision process shaping the influencers relationship with their followers. Specifically, once the brand marketers give incentives to the influencers, they decide what, when, and how to communicate their followers the motivation behind the initiative to show/promote that brand. Such tactical decision process to disclose the nature of the partnership depends not only on the type of compensation but also on the influencer’s criteria. We look at the justifications, arguments to frame such decision/behavior. The practical, ethical, and theoretical implications will be discussed.


Digital influencers Tactical Disclosure Advertising 


  1. 1.
    Djafarova, E., Trofimenko, O.: ‘Instafamous’—credibility and self-presentation of micro-celebrities on social media. Inf. Commun. Soc. 1–15. (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Campbell, C., Marks, L.J.: Good native advertising isn’t a secret. Bus. Horiz. 58(6), 599–606 (2015). Scholar
  3. 3.
    Interactive Advertising Bureau: IAB—Native Advertising Playbook. (2013)
  4. 4.
    Nieto, B.G.: The influencer: a key tool in the digital context of false advertising. Methaodos-Revista De Ciencias Sociales 6(1), 149–156 (2018). Scholar
  5. 5.
    Taylor, C.R.: Native advertising: the black sheep of the marketing family. Int. J. Advert. 36(2), 207–209 (2017). Scholar
  6. 6.
    De Veirman, M., Cauberghe, V., Hudders, L.: Marketing through Instagram influencers: the impact of number of followers and product divergence on brand attitude. Int. J. Advert. 36(5), 798–828 (2017). Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dhanesh, G.S., Duthler, G.: Relationship management through social media influencers: Effects of followers’ awareness of paid endorsement. Pub. Relat. Rev. 45(3). (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Childers, C.C., Lemon, L.L., Hoy, M.G.: #Sponsored#Ad: agency perspective on influencer marketing campaigns. J. Curr. Issues Res. Advert. (2018). Scholar
  9. 9.
    Crain, A.: What happens when you reach a million instagram followers—the coveted ‘M’ can bring influencer status and lucrative marketing deals. Wall Str. J. (2018)
  10. 10.
    Hwang, K.J., Zhang, Q.: Influence of parasocial relationship between digital celebrities and their followers on followers’ purchase and electronic word-of-mouth intentions, and persuasion knowledge. Comput. Hum. Behav. 87, 155–173 (2018). Scholar
  11. 11.
    Khamis, S., Ang, L., Welling, R.: Self-branding, ‘micro-celebrity’ and the rise of social media influencers. Celebr. Stud. 8(2), 191–208 (2017). Scholar
  12. 12.
    Freberg, K., Graham, K., McGaughey, K., Freberg, L.A.: Who are the social media influencers? A study of public perceptions of personality. Pub. Relat. Rev. 37(1), 90–92 (2011). Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jin, S.A.A., Phua, J.: Following celebrities’ tweets about brands: the impact of Twitter-based electronic word-of-mouth on consumers source credibility perception, buying intention, and social identification with celebrities. J. Advert. 43(2), 181–195 (2014). Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jin, S.V.: “Celebrity 2.0 and beyond!” effects of Facebook profile sources on social networking advertising. Comput. Hum. Behav. 79, 154–168 (2018). Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shin, D., Song, J.H., Biswas, A.: Electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) generation in new media platforms: the role of regulatory focus and collective dissonance. Mark. Lett. 25(2), 153–165 (2014). Scholar
  16. 16.
    Thoumrungroje, A.: The influence of social media intensity and EWOM on conspicuous consumption. In: 2nd International Conference on Strategic Innovative Marketing, vol. 148, pp. 7–15. (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    van Doorn, J., Lemon, K.N., Mittal, V., Nass, S., Pick, D., Pirner, P., Verhoef, P.C.: Customer engagement behavior: theoretical foundations and research directions. J. Serv. Res. 13(3), 253–266 (2010). Scholar
  18. 18.
    Goldsmith, R.E., Clark, R.A.: An analysis of factors affecting fashion opinion leadership and fashion opinion seeking. J. Fash. Mark. Manag. 12(3), 308–322 (2008). Scholar
  19. 19.
    Marwick, A.E.: Instafame: luxury selfies in the attention economy. Pub. Cult. 27(1), 137–160 (2015). Scholar
  20. 20.
    Código da Publicidade Português. (1990)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Boerman, S.C., van Reijmersdal, E.A., Neijens, P.C.: Sponsorship disclosure: effects of duration on persuasion knowledge and brand responses. J.Commun. 62(6), 1047–1064 (2012). Scholar
  22. 22.
    Krouwer, S., Poels, K., Paulussen, S.: To disguise or to disclose? The influence of disclosure recognition and brand presence on readers’ responses toward native advertisements in Online news media. J. Interact. Advert. 17(2), 124–137 (2017). Scholar
  23. 23.
    Malhotra, N.K.: Pesquisa de Marketing-: Uma Orientação Aplicada: Bookman Editora (2001)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Aires, L.: Paradigma Qualitativo e Práticas de Investigação Educacional. Universidade Aberta (2015)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cunningham, A., Haley, E.: A look inside the world of advertising-free publishing: a case study of Ms. Magazine. J. Curr. Issues Res. Advert. 22(2), 17–30. (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gottbrecht, L.: The Three Types of Influencers All Marketers Should Know. (2016)
  27. 27.
    Bardin, L.: Análise de Conteúdo. Lisboa: Edições70 (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculdade de EconomiaUniversidade Do PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.LIAAD/INESC-Tec e Faculdade de EconomiaUniversidade Do PortoPortoPortugal

Personalised recommendations