Ethnic Fermented Foods and Beverages of Himachal Pradesh

  • S. S. Kanwar
  • Keshani Bhushan


Himachal Pradesh is situated in the lap of the Western Himalayas with a diverse culture and cuisine. Mostly preparation and usage of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages are associated with tribal areas of the region. Some ethnic fermented foods, commonly prepared in Himachal Pradesh, are bhaturu, manna, marchu, siddu, dosha, chilra (lwar), bedvin roti, gulgule, seera, pinni/bagpinni, pakk, thuktal, borhe, sepubari, bari, churpa, and aska. Mostly these fermented foods are prepared from cereals, viz., wheat, barley, and buckwheat, but some are prepared from legumes and milk too. Traditional fermented alcoholic beverages of Himachal Pradesh include sura, chhang/lugri, angoori/kinnauri, daru/chakti, chulli, behmi, and arak/ara which are prepared from cereals (rice/barley), fruits (apple/wild apricot/grapes), jaggery, and millets. These ethnic fermented foods and alcoholic beverages are especially used during the local festivals, religious ceremonies, and marriage functions in the rural and urban areas of the state and are an important part of the day-to-day life of people of Himachal Pradesh.


Himachal Pradesh Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ethnic fermented foods and alcoholic beverages 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. S. Kanwar
    • 1
  • Keshani Bhushan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of MicrobiologyCSK Himachal Pradesh Agriculture UniversityPalampurIndia
  2. 2.Department of MicrobiologyPunjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia

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