Abiotic Stresses Mediated Changes in Morphophysiology of Cotton Plant

  • Sibgha NoreenEmail author
  • Shakeel AhmadEmail author
  • Zartash Fatima
  • Iqra Zakir
  • Pakeeza Iqbal
  • Kamrun Nahar
  • Mirza Hasanuzzaman


Cotton plant is a warm-weather-loving perennial shrub and now has been domesticated to an annual crop cycle for commercial purposes. It belongs to genus Gossypium (G. hirsutum L., G. barbadense L., G. herbaceum L., G. arboreum L.), widely grown in arid, semiarid, and tropical climates. Globally, of these, G. hirsutum L. (the upland cottons) occupies about 95% of total 33–35 million hectares (2.5% of arable land) of land under cotton cultivation. Cotton crop is not only a natural fiber resource but also a food and feed for billions of humans and livestock. The projected increase in population is 9.0 billion by 2030, which would require an additional quantum of fiber and cotton seed production by more than 70% over the current level of productivity. Cotton plant having an indeterminate growth habit is highly vulnerable to occurrence of persistent and/or intermittent changes in the environments. The footprints of abiotic stresses are more visible on growth and development than those of biotic stresses. In the days to come, under the aegis of climate change, the sustainability of cotton productivity from productive and marginal lands rests by maintaining balance between vegetative and reproductive development from seedlings through maturity. The prevalence of imbalance state (either short or long duration) could lead to loss in farm income. The potential yield could be harvested by transitioning cotton plant from “green cotton” to “white cotton.” This is an effort to manipulate the plant for transporting its greater photo-assimilates from source to sink organs. Farm manager is ought to be proactive and skillful in adopting certain management tools, monitoring crop development, selection of tolerant/resistant cultivars, nutrient management, and phytosanitary measures to reinforce cotton plant for abreasting the external vagaries.


Morphophysiological attributes Abiotic stresses Cotton Plant mapping Source-sink relationship 



Ascorbate peroxidase




Carbon dioxide




Days post-anthesis


Ethylene diurea




Greenhouse gas


Glutathione reductase


Heat shock proteins


Late embryogenesis abundant




Net photosynthesis


Photosynthetic photon flux density


Reactive oxygen species


Superoxide dismutase


  1. Abbas Q, Ahmad S (2018) Effect of different sowing times and cultivars on cotton fiber quality under stable cotton-wheat cropping system in southern Punjab, Pakistan. Pak J Life Soc Sci 16:77–84Google Scholar
  2. Abdullah Z, Ahmad R (1986) Salinity induced changes in the reproductive physiology of cotton plants. In: Ahmad R, San Pietro A (eds) Prospects for biosaline research. Pakistan, Department of Botany, University of Karachi, pp 125–137Google Scholar
  3. Abul-Naas AA, Omran MS (1974) Salt tolerance of seventeen cotton cultivars during germination and early seedling development. Z Ack Pflanzenbau 140:229–236Google Scholar
  4. Ahmad FM (1994) Effect of saline water irrigation at different stages of growth on cotton plant. Assiut J Agric Sci 25:63–74Google Scholar
  5. Ahmad R, Abdullah Z (1980) Biomass production of food and fiber crops using highly saline water under desert conditions. In: San Peitro A (ed) Biosaline research. Plenum Press, New York, pp 149–163Google Scholar
  6. Ahmad S, Raza I (2014) Optimization of management practices to improve cotton fiber quality under irrigated arid environment. J Food Agric Environ 2(2):609–613Google Scholar
  7. Ahmad S, Raza I, Ali H, Shahzad AN, Atiq-ur-Rehman, Sarwar N (2014) Response of cotton crop to exogenous application of glycinebetaine under sufficient and scarce water conditions. Braz J Bot 37(4):407–415Google Scholar
  8. Ahmad S, Abbas Q, Abbas G, Fatima Z, Atique-ur-Rehman, Naz S, Younis H, Khan RJ, Nasim W, Habib ur Rehman M, Ahmad A, Rasul G, Khan MA, Hasanuzzaman M (2017) Quantification of climate warming and crop management impacts on cotton phenology. Plants 6(7):1–16Google Scholar
  9. Ahmad S, Iqbal M, Muhammad T, Mehmood A, Ahmad S, Hasanuzzaman M (2018) Cotton productivity enhanced through transplanting and early sowing. Acta Sci Biol Sci 40:e34610Google Scholar
  10. Ali H, Afzal MN, Ahmad F, Ahmad S, Akhtar M, Atif R (2011) Effect of sowing dates, plant spacing and nitrogen application on growth and productivity on cotton crop. Int J Sci Eng Res 2(9):1–6Google Scholar
  11. Ali H, Abid SA, Ahmad S, Sarwar N, Arooj M, Mahmood A, Shahzad AN (2013a) Integrated weed management in cotton cultivated in the alternate-furrow planting system. J Food Agric Environ 11(3&4):1664–1669Google Scholar
  12. Ali H, Abid SA, Ahmad S, Sarwar N, Arooj M, Mahmood A, Shahzad AN (2013b) Impact of integrated weed management on flat-sown cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). J Anim Plant Sci 23(4):1185–1192Google Scholar
  13. Ali H, Hameed RA, Ahmad S, Shahzad AN, Sarwar N (2014a) Efficacy of different techniques of nitrogen application on American cotton under semi-arid conditions. J Food Agric Environ 12(1):157–160Google Scholar
  14. Ali H, Hussain GS, Hussain S, Shahzad AN, Ahmad S, Javeed HMR, Sarwar N (2014b) Early sowing reduces cotton leaf curl virus occurrence and improves cotton productivity. Cer Agron Moldova XLVII(4):71–81Google Scholar
  15. Alimov KH, Ibragimov S (1976) Trace elements in different cotton cultivars. Field Crop Abstr 29(9):7404Google Scholar
  16. Allakhverdiev SI, Hayashi H, Nishiyama Y, Ivanov AG, Aliev JA, Klimov VV, Murata N, Carpentier R (2003) Glycine betaine protects the D1/D2/Cytb559 complex of PS II against the photo-induced and heat-induced inactivation. J Plant Physiol 160:41–49PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Amin A, Nasim W, Mubeen M, Nadeem M, Ali L, Hammad HM, Sultana SR, Jabran K, Habib urRehman M, Ahmad S, Awais M, Rasool A, Fahad S, Saud S, Shah AN, Ihsan Z, Ali S, Bajwa AA, Hakeem KR, Ameen A, Amanullah, Rehman HU, Alghabar F, Jatoi GH, Akram M, Khan A, Islam F, Ata-Ul-Karim ST, Rehmani MIA, Hussain S, Razaq M, Fathi A (2017) Optimizing the phosphorus use in cotton by using CSM-CROPGRO-cotton model for semi-arid climate of Vehari-Punjab, Pakistan. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(6):5811–5823Google Scholar
  18. Amin A, Nasim W, Mubeen M, Ahmad A, Nadeem M, Urich P, Fahad S, Ahmad S, Wajid A, Tabassum F, Hammad HM, Sultana SR, Anwar S, Baloch SK, Wahid A, Wilkerson CJ, Hoogenboom G (2018) Simulated CSM-CROPGRO-cotton yield under projected future climate by SimCLIM for southern Punjab, Pakistan. Agric Syst 167:213–222Google Scholar
  19. Baker DN, Boker JT (2010) Cotton source/sink relationships. In: Stewart JM, Oosterhuis D, Heitholt JJ, Manuney J (eds) Physiology of cotton. The National Cotton Council, Springer Science + Business Media, New York, pp 80–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Baker DN, Lambert JR, McKinion JM (1983) GOSSYM: a simulator of cotton crop growth and yield. South Carolina Agric Exp Stn Bull 1089:134pGoogle Scholar
  21. Banks SW, Gossett DR, Manchandia A, Bellaire B, Lucas MC, Millhollon EP, Dugger P, Richter D (2000) The influence of alpha-amanitin on the induction of antioxidant enzymes during salt stress. In: 1998 Proc. Beltwide Cotton Conf., San Diego, California, USA, 5–9 January 1998, pp 1393–1395Google Scholar
  22. Bassett DM, Anderson WD, Werkhoven CHE (1970) Dry matter production and nutrient uptake in irrigated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Agron J 62:299–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bielorai H, Hopmans PAM (1975) Recovery of leaf water potential, transpiration, and photosynthesis of cotton during irrigation cycles. Agron J 67:629–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bolger TP, Upchurch DP, McMichael BL (1992) Temperature effects on cotton root hydraulic conductance. Environ Exp Bot 32:49–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Boquet DJ, Breitenback GA (2000) Nitrogen rate effects on partitioning of nitrogen and dry matters by cotton. Crop Sci 40:1685–1693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bota J, Medrano H, Flexas J (2004) Is photosynthesis limited by decreased Rubisco activity and RuBP content under progressive water stress? New Phytol 162:671–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Boyles MB, Verhalin LM, Johnson WM, Barnes BR (2005) Trends over time among cotton cultivation released by the Oklahoma Agricultural Experimental Station. Crop Sci 45:966–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bradow JM, Davidonis GH (2010) Effect of environment on fiber quality. In: Stewart JM, Oosterhuis D, Heitholt JJ, Manuney J (eds) Physiology of cotton. The National Cotton Council, Springer Science + Business Media, New York, pp 229–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brugnoli E, Björkman O (1992) Growth of cotton under continuous salinity stress - influence on allocation pattern, stomatal and nonstomatal components of photosynthesis and dissipation of excess light energy. Planta 187:335–347PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Burke JJ, Wanjura DF (2009) Plant responses to temperature extremes. In: Stewart JM, Oosterhuis DM, Heitholt JJ, Mauney JR (eds) Physiology of cotton. Springer, New York, pp 123–128Google Scholar
  31. Burke JJ, Wanjura DF (2010) Plant responses to temperature extremes. In: Stewart JM, Oosterhuis D, Heitholt JJ, Manuney J (eds) Physiology of cotton. The Cotton Foundation, Springer Science + Business Media, New York, pp 123–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Burney JA, Davis SJ, Lobell DB (2010) Greenhouse gas mitigation by agricultural intensification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 197:12052–12057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Chaves MM, Flexas J, Pinheiro C (2009) Photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: regulation mechanisms from whole plant to cell. Ann Bot 103(2009):551–560PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. Christiansen MN, Rowland RA (1986) Germination and stand establishment. In: Mauney JR, Stewart JMD (eds) Cotton physiology. The Cotton Foundation, Memphis, TN, pp 535–541Google Scholar
  35. Constable GA, Rawson HM (1980) Photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration of cotton fruit. Photosynthetica 14:557–563Google Scholar
  36. Constable GA, Rochester IJ, Cook JB (1988) Zinc, copper, iron, manganese, and boron uptake by cotton on cracking clay soils of high pH. Aust J Exp Agric 28:351–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Constable GA, Rochester IJ, Betts JH, Herridge DF (1991) Prediction of nitrogen fertilizer requirement in cotton using petiole and sap nitrate. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 22:1315–1324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cramer GR, Läuchli A, Polito VS (1985) Displacement of Ca2+ by Na+ from the plasmalemma of root cells. A primary response to salt stress. Plant Physiol 79:207PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Deeba F, Pandey AK, Ranjan S, Mishra A, Singh R, Sharma YK, Shirke PA, Pandey V (2012) Physiological and potassium responses of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to drought stress. Plant Physiol Biochem 53:6–18PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Dong HZ, Kong XQ, Luo Z, Li WJ, Xin CS (2010) Unequal salt distribution in the root zone increases growth and yield of cotton. Eur J Agron 33:285–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dugas WA, Heuer ML, Hunsaker D, Kimball BA, Lewin KF, Nagy J, Johnson M (1994) Sap flow measurements of transpiration from cotton grown under ambient and enriched CO2 concentrations. Agric For Meterol 70:231–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dumka D, Bednarz CW, Maw BW (2004) Delayed initiation of fruiting as a mechanism of improved drought avoidance in cotton. Crop Sci 44:528–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. El-Zik KM, Yamada H, Walhood VT (1980) The effects of management on blooming boll-retention, and productivity of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). In: Proc. Beltwide Cotton Prod. Res. Conf. National Cotton Council, Memphis, TNGoogle Scholar
  44. Faria T, Vaz M, Schwanz P, Polle A, Pereira JS, Chaves MM (1997) Responses of photosynthetic and defense systems to high temperature stress in Quercussuber seedlings grown under elevated CO2. Plant Biol 1:365–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fernandez CJ, Cothren JT, McInnes KJ (1993) Whole-plant photosynthetic rates of cotton under nitrogen stress. In: 1993 Proc. Beltwide Cotton Confs. National Cotton Council of America, Memphis, TN, pp 1256–1258Google Scholar
  46. Foyer CH, Noctor G (2009) Redox regulation in photosynthetic organisms: signaling, acclimation, and practical implications. Antioxid Redox Signal 11:861–905PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. Fry KE (1983) Heat unit calculation in cotton crop and inset models. USDA, ARS, Adv Agric Tech AAT-W-23, p 23Google Scholar
  48. Fye RE, Reddy VR, Baker DN (1984) The validation of GOSSYM: Part I. Arizona conditions. Agric Syst 14:85–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gaspar T, Franck T, Bisbis B, Kevers C, Jouve L, Hausman JF, Dommes J (2002) Concepts in plant stress physiology. Application to plant tissue cultures. Plant Growth Regul 37:263–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ghani Akbar G, Hussain Z, Yasin M (2007) Problems and potentials of permanent raised bed cropping systems in Pakistan. Pak J Water Res 11(1):11Google Scholar
  51. Giband M, Dessauuw D, Barroso PAV (2010) Cotton taxonomy, origin and domestication. In: Wakelyn PJ, Chaudhry MR (eds) Cotton: technology for 21st century. The International Cotton Advisory Committee, Washington, DC, pp 15–17Google Scholar
  52. Gorham J (1996) Mechanisms of salt tolerance of halophytes. In: Choukr-Allah R, Malcolm CV, Hamdy A (eds) Halophytes and biosaline agriculture. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 31–53Google Scholar
  53. Gorham J, Jokinen J, Malik NA, Khan IA (2000) Glycine betaine treatment improves cotton yields in field trials in Pakistan. In: Proc. World Cotton Res. Conf. II. Athens, Greece, pp 624–627Google Scholar
  54. Gorham J, Lauchli A, Leidi EO (2009) Plant responses to salinity. In: Stewart JM, Oosterhuis DM, Heitholt JJ, Mauney JR (eds) Physiology of cotton. National Cotton Council of America, Memphis, TN. Springer, London, pp 130–142Google Scholar
  55. Gorham J, Läuchli A, Leidi EO (2010) Plant responses to salinity. In: Stewart JM, Oosterhuis DM, Heitholt JJ, Mauney JR (eds) Physiology of cotton. Springer, New York, pp 129–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gossett DR, Bellaire B, Banks SW, Lucas MC, Manchandia A, Millhollon EP, Dugger P, Richter D (2000) The influence of abscisic acid on the induction of antioxidant enzymes during salt stress. In: Proc. Beltwide Cotton Conf., San Diego, California, USA, 5–9 January 1998, pp 1396–1399Google Scholar
  57. Grantz DA, Farrar JR (2000) Ozone inhibits phloem loading from a transport pool: compartmental efflux analysis in Pima cotton. Aust J Plant Physiol 27:859–868Google Scholar
  58. Grantz DA, McCool PH (1992) Effect of ozone on Pima and Acala cottons in the San Joaquin Valley. In: Proc. 1992 Beltwide Cotton Conferences, vol 3. National Cotton Council of America, Memphis, TN, pp 1082–1084Google Scholar
  59. Grantz DA, Yang S (1996) Effect of O3 on hydraulic architecture in Pima cotton. Plant Physiol 112:1649–1657PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Grantz DA, Zhang XJ, Massmann WJ, Delany A, Pederson JR (1997) Ozone deposition to a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) field: stomatal and surface wetness effects during the California Ozone Deposition Experiment. Agric For Meteorol 85:19–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Halevy J, Marani A, Markovitz T (1987) Growth and N P K uptake of high-yielding cotton grown at different nitrogen levels in a permanent-plot experiment. Plant Soil 103:39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Heagle AS, Heck WW, Lesser VM, Rawlings JO, Mowry FL (1986) Injury and yield response of cotton to chronic doses of ozone and sulfur dioxide. J Environ Qual 15:375–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Heck WW, Taylor OC, Tingey DT (eds) (1988) Assessment of crop loss from air pollutants. Elsevier Appl. Sci, LondonGoogle Scholar
  64. Hendrix DL (1992) Influence of elevated CO2 on leaf starch of field-grown cotton. Crit Rev Plant Sci 11:223–226Google Scholar
  65. Hesketh JD, Low A (1968) The effect of temperature on components of yield and fiber quality of cotton varieties of diverse origin. Cotton Grow Rev 45:243–257Google Scholar
  66. Hesketh JD, Baker DN, Duncan WG (1972) Simulation of growth and yield in cotton: II. Environmental control of morphogenesis. Crop Sci 12:436–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Higbie SM, Wang F, Stewart JM, Sterling TM, Lindemann WC, Hughs E, Zhang J (2010) Physiological response to salt (NaCl) stress in selected cultivated tetraploid cottons. Int J Agron 1:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Hodges SC (1992) Nutrient deficiency disorders. In: Hillocks R (ed) Cotton diseases. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 355–403Google Scholar
  69. Hodges SC, Constable G (2010) Plant responses to mineral deficiencies and toxicities. In: Stewart JM, Oosterhuis D, Heitholt JJ, Mauney J (eds) Physiology of cotton. The National Cotton Council, Springer Science + Business Media, New York, pp 142–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hsiao TC, Oliveira EC, Radulovich R (1982) Physiology and productivity of cotton under water stress. In: Proc. 1982 Cotton Prod. Res. Confs. Las Vegas, NV. National Cotton Council of America, Memphis, TN, p 60Google Scholar
  71. Ibrahim AA (1984) Effect of GA3 and boron on growth, yield and accumulation of Na, K, and Cl in cotton grown under saline conditions. Ann Agric Sci Moshtohor 21:519–531Google Scholar
  72. Inoue Y, Kimball BA, Mauney JR, Jackson RD, Pinter PJ Jr, Reginato RJ (1990) Stomatal behavior and relationship between photosynthesis and transpiration in field-grown cotton as affected by CO2 enrichment. Jap J Crop Sci 59:510–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Iqbal RMS, Chaudhry MB, Aslam M, Bandesha AA (1991) Economic and agricultural impact of mutation breeding in cotton in Pakistan. A review. In: Kitto PH (ed) Plant mutation for crop improvement. IAEA, Vienna, pp 187–201Google Scholar
  74. Jafri AZ, Ahmad R (1995) Effect of soil salinity on leaf development, stomatal size, and its distribution in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Pak J Bot 27:297–303Google Scholar
  75. Jenkins JN, McCarty LC, Parrot WL Jr (1990) Effectiveness of fruiting sites in cotton: yield. Crop Sci 30:365–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kerby TA, Adams F (1985) Potassium nutrition of cotton. In: Munson RD (ed) Potassium in agriculture. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI, pp 843–860Google Scholar
  77. Khan MB, Khaliq A, Ahmad S (2004) Performance of mashbean intercropped in cotton planted in different planting patterns. J Res (Sci) 15(2):191–197Google Scholar
  78. Khorsandi F, Anagholi A (2009) Reproductive compensation of cotton after salt stress relief at different growth stages. J Agron Crop Sci 195:278–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Kimball BA, Mauney JR (1993) Response of cotton to varying CO2, irrigation, and nitrogen: yield and growth. Agron J 85:706–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kirkham MB, Gardner WR, Gerloff GC (1972) Regulation of cell division and cell enlargement by turgor pressure. Plant Physiol 49:961–962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Landivar JA, Benedict JH (1996) Monitoring system for the management of cotton growth and fruiting. Bulletin B-2. Texas A&M University Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Corpus Christi, TXGoogle Scholar
  82. Läuchli A, Stelter W (1982) Salt tolerance of cotton genotypes in relation to K/Na-selectivity. In: San Pietro A (ed) Biosaline research. Plenum Press, New York, pp 511–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Leidi EO, Nogales R, Lips SH (1991) Effect of salinity on cotton plants grown under nitrate or ammonium nutrition at different calcium levels. Field Crops Res 26:35–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Li WJ, Dong HZ, Guo QZ, Pang JQ, Zhang J (1998) Physiological response of a good upland hybrid and its parent to PEG and NaCl stresses. China Cottons 25:7–10Google Scholar
  85. Lin J, Zhu Z, Fan B, Lin JD, Zhu ZY, Fan BX (1995) Physiological reaction of cotton varieties under different levels of salt stress. China Cottons 22:16–17Google Scholar
  86. Loka DA, Oosterhuis DM (2011) Effect of 1-MCP on the cotton flower under water-deficit stress. In: Oosterhuis DM (ed) Summaries of Arkansas Cotton Research, Ark Agric Exp Station. University of Arkansas System, FayettevilleGoogle Scholar
  87. Loka DA, Oosterhuis DM, Ritchie GL (2011) Water deficit stress in cotton. In: Oosterhuis DM (ed) Stress physiology in cotton. Cotton Foundation, Memphis, TN, pp 33–72Google Scholar
  88. Maas EV (1990) Crop salt tolerance. In: Tanji KJ (ed) Agricultural salinity assessment and management. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, pp 262–304Google Scholar
  89. Makhdum MI, Shababuddin, Ahmad F, Chaudhry FI (2002) Using a chlorophyll meter to improve nitrogen management in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Pak J Soil Sci 21:60–67Google Scholar
  90. Malik MN, Makhdum MI (1987) Salinity tolerance of cotton cultivars (G. hirsutum L.) at germination. Pak Cottons 31:171–174Google Scholar
  91. Manning WJ, Krupa SV (1992) Experimental methodology for studying the effects of ozone on crops and trees. In: Lefohn AS (ed) Surface level ozone exposures and their effects on vegetation. Lewis Publ. Inc., Chelsea, MI, pp 93–156Google Scholar
  92. Marani A, Baker DN, Reddy VR, McKinion JM (1985) Effect of water stress on canopy senescence and carbon exchange rates in cotton. Crop Sci 25:798–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Mauney JR (2010) Responses of cotton to CO2 enrichment. In: Stewart JM, Oosterhuis DM, Heitholt JJ, Mauney JR (eds) Physiology of cotton. Springer, New York, pp 174–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Mauney JR, Kimball BA, Pinter PJ Jr, LaMorte RL, Lewin KF, Nagy J, Hendrey GR (1994) Growth and yield in cotton in response to a free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) environment. Agric For Meterol 70:49–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. McMichael BL, Burke JJ (1994) Metabolic activity of cotton roots in response to temperature. Environ Exp Bot 34:201–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Meiri A, Frenkel H, Mantell A (1992) Cotton response to water and salinity under sprinkler and drip irrigation. Agron J 84(1):44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Miller JE, Patterson RP, Heagle AS, Pursley WA, Heck WW (1988) Growth of cotton under chronic ozone stress at two levels of soil moisture. J Environ Qual 17:635–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Moreno F, Fernandez-Boy E, Cabrera F, Fernandez JE, Palomo MJ, Giron IF, Bellido B (1998) Irrigation with saline water in the reclaimed marsh soils of Southwest Spain: impact on soil properties and cotton crop. In: Ragab R (ed) The use of saline and brackish water for irrigation. Implications for the management of irrigation, drainage and crops. Proc. international workshop tenth ICID Afro-Asian Regional Conf. on Irrigation and Drainage, Denpasas, Bali, Indonesia, 19–26 July, 1998. Pearce-G, Indonesian National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage (INACID), Directorate General of Water Resources Development, Ministry of Public Works, Jakarta, Indonesia, pp 51–58Google Scholar
  99. Moreno F, Fernandez BE, Cabrera F, Fernandez JE, Palomo MJ, Giron IF, Bellido B (2000) Irrigation with saline water in the reclaimed marsh soils of southwest Spain: impact on soil properties and cotton crop. The use of saline and brackish water for irrigation drainage and crops. In: Proc. international workshop at the tenth ICID Afro-Asian Regional Conference on Irrigation and Drainage, Denpasas, Bali, Indonesia, 19–26 July, 1998, pp 51–58; 4 ref., Denpasas, Bali, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  100. Muhammed S, Makhdum MI (1973) Effect of soil salinity on the composition of oil and amino acids and on the oil content of sunflower seed. Pak J Agric Sci 10:71–76Google Scholar
  101. Mullins GL, Burmester CH (1991) Dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium accumulation by four cotton varieties. Agron J 82:729–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Mullins GL, Burmester CH (1992) Uptake of calcium and magnesium by cotton grown under dryland conditions. Agron J 84:564–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mullins GL, Burmester CH (1993) Accumulation of copper, iron, manganese and zinc by four cotton cultivars. Field Crops Res 32:129–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Mullins GL, Burmester CH (2010) Relation of growth and development to mineral nutrition. In: Stewart JM, Oosterhuis D, Heitholt JJ, Mauney J (eds) Physiology of cotton. The National Cotton Council, Springer Science + Business Media, New York, pp 97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Nawaz A, Ahmad N, Qureshi RH (1986) Salt tolerance of cotton. In: Ahmad R, Pietro AS (eds) Prospects for biosaline research. Karachi University, Pakistan, pp 285–291Google Scholar
  106. Oliveira FA, de TGS C, da Oliveira BC (1998) Effect of saline substrate on germination, vigor, and growth of herbaceous cotton. Engenharia Agricola 18:1–10Google Scholar
  107. Oosterhuis DM (1990) Growth and development of a cotton plant. In: Miley WN, Oosterhuis DM (eds) Nitrogen nutrition of cotton: practical issues. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI, pp 1–24Google Scholar
  108. Oosterhuis DM, Snider JL (2010) High temperature stress on floral development and yield of cotton. In: Oosterhuis DM (ed) Stress physiology in cotton, vol 7. The Cotton Foundation, Cordova, TN, pp 1–24Google Scholar
  109. Oosterhuis DM, Wullschleger SD (1987) Osmotic adjustment in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves and roots in response to water stress. Plant Physiol 84:1154–1157PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Oosterhuis DM, Zhao D (1993) Physiological effects of PGR-IV on the growth and yield of cotton. In: Proc. Beltwide Cotton Prod. Res. Confs. National Cotton Council of America, Memphis, TN, p 1270Google Scholar
  111. Parida AK, Dagaonkar VS, Phalak MS, Umalkar GV, Aurangabadkar LP (2007) Alterations in photosynthetic pigments, protein and osmotic components in cotton genotypes subjected to short-term drought stress followed by recovery. Plant Biotechnol Rep 1(1):37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Pervez H, Ashraf M, Makhdum MI (2005a) Response of cotton to potassium fertilizer on effectiveness of fruiting sites in Aridisoles. J Plant Nutr 28:1023–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Pervez H, Makhdum MI, Ashraf M (2005b) The interactive effects of potassium nutrition on the uptake of other nutrients in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under an arid environment. J Chem Soc Pak 27:1–17Google Scholar
  114. Radin JW, Kimball BA, Hendrix DL, Mauney JR (1987) Photosynthesis of cotton plants exposed to elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the field. Photosynth Res 12:191–203PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. Rahman MH, Ahmad A, Wang X, Wajid A, Nasim W, Hussain M, Ahmad B, Ahmad I, Ali Z, Ishaque W, Awais M, Shelia V, Ahmad S, Fahad S, Alam M, Ullah H, Hoogenboom G (2018) Multi-model projections of future climate and climate change impacts uncertainty assessment for cotton production in Pakistan. Agric For Meteorol 253–254:94–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Rasapula V, Shen G, Kuppu S, Paez-Valencia J, Mendoza M, Hou P, Chen J, Qiu X, Zhu L, Zhang X, Auld D, Blumwald E, Zhang H, Gaxiola R, Payton P (2011) Expression of an Arabidopsis vacuolar H+ - pyrophosphatase gene (AVP 1) in cotton improves drought and salt tolerance and increases fiber yield in the field conditions. Plant Biotechnol J 9:88–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Rathert G (1983) Effects of high salinity stress on mineral and carbohydrate metabolism of two cotton varieties. Plant Soil 73:247–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Reddy VR, Acock B, Baker DN, Acock M (1989) Seasonal leaf area-leaf weight relationships in the cotton canopy. Agron J 81:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Reddy VR, Baker DN, Hodges HF (1990) Temperature and mepiquat chloride effects on cotton canopy architecture. Agron J 82:190–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Reddy VR, Reddy KR, Baker DN (1991) Temperature effect on growth and development of cotton during the fruiting period. Agron J 83:211–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Reddy KR, Hodges HF, Reddy VR (1992) Temperature effects on cotton fruit retention. Agron J 84:26–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Reddy KR, Hodges HF, McKinion JM (1993) A temperature model for cotton phenology. Biotronics 22:47–59Google Scholar
  123. Reddy VR, Reddy KR, Acock B (1995) Carbon dioxide and temperature interactions on stem extension, node initiation, and fruiting in cotton. Agric Ecosyst Environ 55:17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Reddy KR, Hodges HF, McKinion JM (1996) Weather and cotton growth: present and future. Bulletin 1061. Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Mississippi State University, Mississippi, p 23Google Scholar
  125. Reddy KR, Hodges HF, McKinion JM (1997) A comparison of scenarios for the effect of global climate change on cotton growth and yield. Aust J Plant Physiol 24:707–713Google Scholar
  126. Reid R (2007) Update on boron toxicity and tolerance in plants. In: Xu F, Goldbach HE, Brown PH, Bell RW, Fujiwara T, Hunt CD, Goldberg S, Shi J (eds) Advances in plant and animal boron nutrition. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp 83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Ritchie GL, Whitaker JR, Bednarz CW, Hook JE (2009) Subsurface drip and over-head irrigation of cotton: a comparison of plant boll distribution in upland cotton. Agron J 101:1336–1344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Rochester IJ (2007) Nutrient uptake and export from an Australian cotton field. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 77:213–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Rochester IJ (2012) Using seed nitrogen concentration to estimate crop N use efficiency in high-yielding irrigated cotton. Field Crop Res 127:140–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Rosolem CA, Bogiani JC (2011) Physiology of boron stress in cotton. In: Oosterhuis DM (ed) Stress physiology in cotton, vol 7. The Cotton Foundation, Cordova, TN, pp 113–124Google Scholar
  131. Rosolem CA, Costa A (1999) Boron nutrition and growth of cotton as a function of temporary boron deficiency. Anain II Congresso Brasileiro de Algodao: O algodao no seculo XX, perspectivas para a seculo XXI, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brasil, 5–10 Setembro 1999, pp 403–406Google Scholar
  132. Rosolem CA, Mikkelsen DS (1991) Potassium absorption and partitioning in cotton as affected by periods of potassium deficiency. J Plant Nutr 14:1001–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Runeckles VC, Chevone BI (1992) Crop responses to ozone. In: Lefohn AS (ed) Surface level ozone exposures and their effects on vegetation. Lewis Publ. Inc., Chelsea, MI, pp 189–270Google Scholar
  134. Saini HS (1997) Injuries to reproductive development under water stress, and their consequences for crop productivity. J Crop Prod 1:137–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Schwab GJ, Mullins GL, Burmester CH (2000) Growth and nutrient uptake by cotton roots under field conditions. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 31(1&2):149–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Shalhevet J, Hsiao TC (1986) Salinity and drought. A comparison of their effects on osmotic adjustment, assimilation, transpiration and growth. Irrig Sci 7:249–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Silberbush M, Ben-Asher J (1987) The effect of salinity on parameters of potassium and nitrate uptake of cotton. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 18:65–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Sinclair TR, Ludlow MM (1985) Who taught plants thermodynamics? The unfulfilled potential of plant water potential. Aust J Plant Physiol 12:213–217Google Scholar
  139. Snider JL, Oosterhuis DM, Skulman BW, Kawakami EM (2009) Heat stress-induced limitations to reproductive success in Gossypium hirsutum. Physiol Plant 137:125–138PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. Stark C, Schmidt R (1991) Behaviour of 22Na in salt-stressed crops as affected by the growth regulator MCBuTTB. Beitragezur Tropischen Landwirtschaft und Veterinarmedizin 29:435–443Google Scholar
  141. Stewart JMD (1986) Integrated events in the flower and fruit. In: Mauney J Jr, Stewart JMD (eds) Cotton physiology. Cotton Foundation, Memphis, TN, pp 261–297Google Scholar
  142. Subbarao KV, Chassot A, Gordon TR, Hubbard JC, Bonello P, Mullin R, Okamoto D, Davis RM, Koike ST (1995) Genetic relationships and cross pathogenicities of Verticillium dahliae isolates from cauliflower and other crops. Phytopathology 85:1105–1112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Taha MA, Malik MNA, Chaudhry FI, Makhdum I (1981) Heat induced sterility in cotton sown during early April in West Punjab. Exp Agric 17:189–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Tariq M, Yasmeen A, Ahmad S, Hussain N, Afzal MN, Hasanuzzaman M (2017) Shedding of fruiting structures in cotton: factors, compensation and prevention. Trop Subtrop Agroecosyst 20(2):251–262Google Scholar
  145. Tariq M, Afzal MN, Muhammad D, Ahmad S, Shahzad AN, Kiran A, Wakeel A (2018) Relationship of tissue potassium content with yield and fiber quality components of Bt cotton as influenced by potassium application methods. Field Crops Res 229:37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Temple PJ (1990) Growth form and yield responses of four cotton cultivars to ozone. Agron J 82:1045–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Temple PJ, Grants DA (2010) Air pollution stress. In: Stewart JM, Oosterhuis DM, Heitholt JJ, Mauney JR (eds) Physiology of cotton. Springer, New York, pp 162–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Terry N, Waldron LJ, Ulrich A (1971) Effects of moisture stress on the multiplication and expansion of cells in leaves of sugar beet. Planta (Berl) 97:281–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Tiwari RJ (1994) Response of gypsum on morpho-physiochemical properties of cotton cultivars under salt affected vertisols of Madhya Pradesh. Crop Res Hisar 7:197–200Google Scholar
  150. Tiwari RJ, Dwivedi K, Verma SK (1993) Effect of gypsum on leaf-water potential of cottons (Gossypium hirsutum, G. herbaceum, and G. arboreum) varieties grown in salt-affected vertisol of Madhya Pradesh. Indian J Agric Sci 63:734–736Google Scholar
  151. Usman M, Ahmad A, Ahmad S, Irshad M, Khaliq T, Wajid A, Hussain K, Nasim W, Chattha TM, Trethowan R, Hoogenboom G (2009) Development and application of crop water stress index for scheduling irrigation in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) under semiarid environment. J Food Agric Environ 7(3&4):386–391Google Scholar
  152. Warner DA, Burke JJ (1993) Cool night temperatures alter leaf starch and photosystem II: chlorophyll fluorescence in cotton. Agron J 85:836–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Waseem M, Athar HU, Ashraf M (2006) Effect of salicylic acid applied through rooting medium on drought tolerance of wheat. Pak J Bot 38:1127–1136Google Scholar
  154. William S, Bange M (2018) The cotton plant. In: Australian cotton production manual. Cotton Research and Development Corporation, Australia, p 2018Google Scholar
  155. Wullschleger SD, Oosterhuis DM (1990) Photosynthesis of individual field-grown cotton leaves during ontogeny. Photosynth Res 23:163–170PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. Zhang HJ, Dong HZ, Li WJ, Zhang DM (2012) Effects of soil salinity and plant density on yield leaf senescence of field grown cotton. J Agron Crop Sci 198:27–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Zhao D, Oosterhuis DM (1997) Physiological response of growth chamber-grown cotton plants to the plant growth regulator PGR-IV under water-deficit stress. Environ Exp Bot 38:7–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Zhao D, Oosterhuis DM (2002) Cotton carbon exchange, nonstructural carbohydrates, and boron distribution in tissues during development of boron deficiency. Field Crops Res 78:75–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Zhao D, Oosterhuis DM (2003) Cotton: growth and physiological responses of cotton to boron deficiency. J Plant Nutr 26:855–867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Zhao D, Reddy KR, Kakani VG, Koti S, Gao W (2005) Physiological causes of cotton fruit abscission under conditions of high temperature and enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation. Physiol Plant 124:189–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sibgha Noreen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shakeel Ahmad
    • 2
    Email author
  • Zartash Fatima
    • 3
  • Iqra Zakir
    • 3
  • Pakeeza Iqbal
    • 4
  • Kamrun Nahar
    • 5
  • Mirza Hasanuzzaman
    • 6
  1. 1.Institute of Pure and Applied BiologyBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and TechnologyBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan
  3. 3.Department of AgronomyBahauddin Zakariya UniversityMultanPakistan
  4. 4.Department of BotanyUniversity of AgricultureFaisalabadPakistan
  5. 5.Department of Agricultural BotanySher-e-Bangla Agricultural UniversityDhakaBangladesh
  6. 6.Department of Agronomy, Faculty of AgricultureSher-e-Bangla Agricultural UniversityDhakaBangladesh

Personalised recommendations