Nonlinear Frequency-Mixing Photoacoustic Characterisation of a Crack

  • Sylvain MezilEmail author
  • Nikolay Chigarev
  • Vincent Tournat
  • Vitalyi Gusev
Part of the Springer Series in Measurement Science and Technology book series (SSMST)


A one and two dimensional imaging of a crack by a novel nonlinear frequency-mixing photoacoustic method is presented. Acoustic waves are initiated by a pair of laser beams intensity-modulated at two different frequencies. The first laser beam, intensity modulated at a low frequency \(f_L\), generates a thermoelastic wave which modulates the local crack rigidity up to complete closing/opening of the crack, corresponding to crack breathing. The second laser beam, intensity modulated at much higher frequency \(f_H\), generates an acoustic wave incident on the breathing crack. The detection of acoustic waves at mixed frequencies \(f_H\pm nf_L\) (\(n=1,2,\dots \)), absent in the excitation frequency spectrum, provides detection of the crack, which can be achieved all-optically. The theory attributes the generation of the frequency-mixed spectral components to the modulation of the acoustic waves reflected/transmitted by the time-varying nonlinear rigidity of the crack. The crack rigidity is modified due to stationary and oscillating components from the laser-induced thermoelastic stresses. The amplitudes of the spectral sidelobes are non-monotonous functions of the increasing thermoelastic loading. Fitting such experimental evolutions with theoretical ones leads to estimating various local parameters of the crack, including its width and rigidity.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sylvain Mezil
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nikolay Chigarev
    • 1
  • Vincent Tournat
    • 1
  • Vitalyi Gusev
    • 1
  1. 1.LAUMLe Mans UniversitéLe MansFrance

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