Advertisement

Sustainability of Concrete Constructions: The Role of Materials and Practices

  • Saradhi Babu DanetiEmail author
  • Chat Tim Tam
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 61)

Abstract

With an ever-increasing population and the developments that are taking place around the world, sustainability of cement and concrete constructions is gaining importance. This revolves mainly around natural resource depletion issues associated with extensive mining for cement and concrete raw materials, and CO2 emissions from the cement production process. It is important that these issues are addressed satisfactorily both for the well-being of our planet and for the continued growth of our society for generations to come. Concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials in the world after water. However, the production of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), an essential constituent of concrete, releases large amounts of CO2 and is also energy-intensive. Aggregates occupy most of the volume in concrete and use of natural/virgin aggregates is not always viable due to depletion of natural resource and the environmental impact. Furthermore, it is not viable to reduce the use of cement and concrete; this impacts the employment opportunities associated with the cement, concrete and construction industry and also impacts the Nation’s overall infrastructure development. Therefore, cement, concrete and construction industries must continue to evolve with the changing needs and expectations of the society while protecting the environment. One of the measures that are necessary to address this problem is by the use of alternative and/or recycled materials for production of cement and concrete, safely and economically. This paper presents the impact of cement and concrete production on environment and the Earth’s natural resources and analyzes possible proposals for achieving sustainability in the concrete construction industry. In addition, the details of the R&D works on high replacements of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), recycled concrete aggregate (RCA), and manufactured sand (M-sand) and their effect on strength and/or durability of concrete are also presented.

Keywords

Sustainability Green materials Environment Cement Concrete Recycled concrete aggregate Ready mix 

References

  1. 1.
    UNFCCC COP9 Report. (2004). Delivering the Kyoto baby. Refocus, International Renewable Energy Magazine, pp. 52–53.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    NRMCA Publication Number 2PCO2. (2012). Concrete CO2 Fact Sheet, USA, pp. 1–11.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Malhotra, V. M. (2004). Role of supplementary cementing materials and superplasticizers in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In Proceeding of ICFRC International Conference on Fiber Composites, High-Performance Concrete, and Smart Materials, Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai, India, pp. 489–499. http://www.globalwarmingart.com.
  4. 4.
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
    Leslie, S., & Jonathan G. (2004). How sustainable is concrete? In International Workshop on Sustainable Development and Concrete Technology, USA, pp. 201–211.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
    BS EN 197-1:2011, Cement. Part 1: Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for common cements, BSI.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
  10. 10.
    Malhotra, V. M., & Mehta, P. K. (1996). Pozzolanic and cementitious materials: Advances in concrete technology. London: Gordon and Breach.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    BS EN 206-1:2013, Concrete—Specifications, performance, production and conformity. London, UK: British Standards Institute.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    BS EN 12620:2002+A1:2008, Aggregates for concrete. London, UK: British Standards Institute.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dhir, R. K., Henderson, N. A., & Limbachiya, M. C. (1998, November 11–12). Sustainable construction: Use of recycled concrete aggregate. In Proceedings of the International Symposium Organised by the Concrete Technology Unit (p. iii). University of Dundee and Thomas Telford: London, UK.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    WRAP. (2007, February). Performance related approach to use of recycled aggregates. Banbury: Waste & Resources Action Programme.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tamilselvan, T., & Ong, G. K. C. (2015, January 16). Use of recycled aggregate in concrete—A performance based approach. In Workshop on Sustainable Concrete, Singapore.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gonçalves, J. P., Tavares, L. M., Filho, R. D. T., Fairbairn, E. M. R., & Cunha, E. R. (2007). Comparison of natural and manufactured fine aggregates in cement mortars. Cement and Concrete Research, 37, 924–932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Li, B., Ke, G., & Zhou, M. (2011). Influence of manufactured sand characteristics on strength and abrasion resistance of pavement cement concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 25, 3849–3853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Daneti, S. B., & Tam, C. T. (2018). Effect of GGBS and M-sand contents on strength and durability performance of concretes. Green Materials Journal, ICE Publishing. Under review.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    CCAA Guide. (2008). Guide to the specification and use of manufactured sand in concrete. Cement Concrete & Aggregates Australia.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Martins, P., Diane, G., & Robert, L. (2016). An investigation into the use of manufactured sand as a 100% replacement for fine aggregate in concrete. Materials, 9(440), 1–19.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Daneti, S. B., Tamilselvan, T., & Ong K. C. G. (2015). Sustainability of concrete constructions for the 21st century. In The Seminar on Sustainable Construction, RMCAS and BCA Singapore, pp. 115–128.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    BS 8500-2:2015, Concrete—Complementary British standard to BS EN 206 Part 2: Specification for constituent materials and concrete. London, UK: British Standards Institute.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Daneti, S. B., Li, W., & Tam, C. T. (2016). EN 206 conformity testing for concrete strength in compression. Journal—The Institution of Engineers Malaysia, 77(2), 1–11.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    NTPC Ltd. Fly Ash Bricks A Useful & Environment Friendly Building Product, Ash Utilization Division, Noida, UP, India.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Building and Construction Authority (BCA). (2008). Sustainable construction—A guide on the use of recycled materials. BCA Sustainable Construction Series 4.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Alliance Concrete Singapore Pte Ltd.SingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.National University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations