Sustainability of Concrete Constructions: The Role of Materials and Practices

  • Saradhi Babu DanetiEmail author
  • Chat Tim Tam
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 61)


With an ever-increasing population and the developments that are taking place around the world, sustainability of cement and concrete constructions is gaining importance. This revolves mainly around natural resource depletion issues associated with extensive mining for cement and concrete raw materials, and CO2 emissions from the cement production process. It is important that these issues are addressed satisfactorily both for the well-being of our planet and for the continued growth of our society for generations to come. Concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials in the world after water. However, the production of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), an essential constituent of concrete, releases large amounts of CO2 and is also energy-intensive. Aggregates occupy most of the volume in concrete and use of natural/virgin aggregates is not always viable due to depletion of natural resource and the environmental impact. Furthermore, it is not viable to reduce the use of cement and concrete; this impacts the employment opportunities associated with the cement, concrete and construction industry and also impacts the Nation’s overall infrastructure development. Therefore, cement, concrete and construction industries must continue to evolve with the changing needs and expectations of the society while protecting the environment. One of the measures that are necessary to address this problem is by the use of alternative and/or recycled materials for production of cement and concrete, safely and economically. This paper presents the impact of cement and concrete production on environment and the Earth’s natural resources and analyzes possible proposals for achieving sustainability in the concrete construction industry. In addition, the details of the R&D works on high replacements of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), recycled concrete aggregate (RCA), and manufactured sand (M-sand) and their effect on strength and/or durability of concrete are also presented.


Sustainability Green materials Environment Cement Concrete Recycled concrete aggregate Ready mix 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Alliance Concrete Singapore Pte Ltd.SingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.National University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

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