Statistical and Analytical Evaluation of Groundwater Quality of Atmakur Area, SPSR Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh, South India

  • Balaji EtikalaEmail author
  • Veeraswamy Golla
  • Nagaraju Arveti
  • Sreedhar Yenamala
  • Prasad Mannala
  • P. L. Keshava Kiran Kumar
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 61)


A statistical approach for instance cluster and factor modes was performed to categorize 21 wells in the Atmakur area of SPSR Nellore District based on groundwater hydrochemistry. The collected groundwater samples were examined for physico-chemical specifications and major ion chemistry like pH, electrical conductivity, TDS, Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, K+, Cl, HCO3− and SO42− using standard methods. Additionally, chloro-alkaline indices and Gibbs ratio were executed to the analysed data to assess the dominant processes controlling groundwater chemistry of the region. Ca–Mg–HCO3 was the main hydrochemical facies in Chadha’s classification. The end results showed that silicate weathering (which is further endorsed by scatter diagram of HCO3−, SO42− versus Ca2+, Mg2+, dissolution of sulphates and chlorides due to the fertilizers and intense agricultural activities, water–rock interaction and reverse ion exchange are responsible for the groundwater chemistry in this region.


Cluster analysis Factor analysis Groundwater Gibbs ratio Indices of base exchange Atmakur SPSR Nellore Andhra Pradesh 



The author Balaji Etikala is thankful to the CSIR-New Delhi for providing the senior research fellowship (SRF).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Balaji Etikala
    • 1
    Email author
  • Veeraswamy Golla
    • 1
  • Nagaraju Arveti
    • 1
  • Sreedhar Yenamala
    • 1
  • Prasad Mannala
    • 2
  • P. L. Keshava Kiran Kumar
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of GeologySri Venkateswara UniversityTirupatiIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric SciencesUniversity of HyderabadHyderabadIndia
  3. 3.Department of GeologyYogi Vemana UniversityKadapaIndia

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