Advertisement

Constructed Wetlands: An Emerging Green Technology for the Treatment of Industrial Wastewaters

  • M. Dinesh Kumar
  • S. Gopikumar
  • Do Khac Uan
  • S. Adishkumar
  • J. Rajesh Banu
Chapter
  • 37 Downloads
Part of the Microorganisms for Sustainability book series (MICRO, volume 18)

Abstract

Constructed wetland treatment methods have been evolved as a consistent treatment technology treating domestic, industrial and agricultural wastewaters. Special attention has been focused on landfill leachate and storm water runoff. Natural wetlands in general remove pollution, but in CWs the conditions are properly monitored, as a result the efficiency in pollution removal is drastic. Removal of the organics and suspended impurities improves the treatment efficiency. Introducing special media for the absorption of nitrogen and phosphorous is focused for removal, which are available in abundant and observed to be the major pollutant. The cost for operation and maintenance of CWs are lower as it requires very less power consumption compared with conventional treatment systems. In addition the design is framed in such a way that it is involved in maintaining the environment during floods and provides habitat for wildlife through dual or multipurpose ecosystems.

Keywords

Industries Wastewaters Treatment Constructed wetlands Green technology 

References

  1. Ahmed S, Popov V, Trevedi RC (2008) Constructed wetland as tertiary treatment for municipal wastewater. Inst Civil Eng 77–84:WR2Google Scholar
  2. Ávila C, Salas JJ, Martín I, Aragón C, García J (2013) Integrated treatment of combined sewer wastewater and stormwater in a hybrid constructed wetland system in southern Spain and its further reuse. Ecol Eng 50:13–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bharagava RN, Chandra R (2010) Biodegradation of the major color containing compounds in distillery wastewater by an aerobic bacterial culture and characterization of their metabolites. Biodegrad J 21:703–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bharagava RN, Saxena G, Chowdhary P (2017) Constructed wetlands: an emerging phytotechnology for degradation and detoxification of industrial wastewaters. In: Bharagava RN (ed) Environmental pollutants and their bioremediation approaches. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 397–426Google Scholar
  5. Billore SK, Singh N, Sharma JK, Dass P, Nelson RM (1999) Horizontal subsurface flow gravel bed constructed wetland with Phragmites karka in central India. Water Sci Technol 401:73–171Google Scholar
  6. Bojcevska H, Tonderski K (2007) Impact of loads, season, and plant species on the performance of a tropical constructed wetland polishing effluent from sugar factory stabilization ponds. Ecol Eng 29:66–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Borin M, Politeo M, De Stefani G (2013) Performance of a hybrid constructed wetland treating piggery wastewater. Ecol Eng 51:229–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brissaud F (2007) Low technology systems for wastewater perspectives. Water Sci Technol 55(7):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Calheiros CS, Rangel AO, Castro PM (2014) Constructed wetlands for tannery wastewater treatment in Portugal: ten years of experience. Int J Phytorem 16:859–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carballeira T, Ruiz I, Soto M (2016) Effect of plants and surface loading rate on the treatment efficiency of shallow subsurface constructed wetlands. Ecol Eng 90:203–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen H (2011) Surface-flow constructed treatment wetlands for pollutant removal: applications and perspectives. Wetlands 31:805–814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen ZM, Chen B, Zhou JB, Li Z, Zhou Y (2008) A vertical subsurface-flow constructed wetland in Beijing. Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simul 13:1986–1997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen Y, Wen Y, Zhou Q, Vymazal J (2014) Effects of plant biomass on nitrogen transformation in subsurface-batch constructed wetlands: a stable isotope and mass balance assessment. Water Res 63:158–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen Z, Cuervo DP, Müller JA, Wiessner A, Köser H, Vymazal J, Kästner M, Kuschk P (2016) Hydroponic root mats for wastewater treatment—a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(16):15911–15928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chowdhary P, Yadav A, Kaithwas G, Bharagava RN (2017) Distillery wastewater: a major source of environmental pollution and it’s biological treatment for environmental safety. In: Singh R, Kumar S (eds) Green technology and environmental sustainability. Springer International, Cham, pp 409–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dallas S, Scheffe B, Ho G (2004) Reedbeds for greywater treatment—case study in Santa Elena-Monteverde, Costa Rica, Central America. Ecol Eng 23:55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Di Muro JL, Guertin FM, Helling RK, Perkins JL, Romer S (2014) A financial and environmental analysis of constructed wetlands for industrial wastewater treatment. J Ind Ecol 18(5):631–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ding Y, Wang W, Song XS, Wang G, Wang YH (2014) Effect of spray aeration on organics and nitrogen removal in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland. Chemosphere 117:502–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fan J, Liang S, Zhang B, Zhang J (2013) Enhanced organics and nitrogen removal in batch-operated vertical flow constructed wetlands by combination of intermittent aeration and step feeding strategy. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20(4):2448–2455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gikas P, Ranieri E, Tchobanoglous G (2013) Removal of iron, chromium and lead from waste water by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 88(10):1906–1912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gomes AC, Silva L, Albuquerque A, Simões R, Stefanakis AI (2018) Investigation of lab-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating industrial cork boiling wastewater. Chemosphere 207:430–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hadad HR, Mufarrege MM, Di Luca GA, Maine MA (2018) Salinity and pH effects on floating and emergent macrophytes in a constructed wetland. Water Sci Technol 2017(1):270–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. He LS, Liu HL, Xi BD, Zhu YB (2006) Effects of effluent recirculation in vertical flow constructed wetland on treatment efficiency of livestock wastewater. Water Sci Technol 54(11–12):137–146Google Scholar
  24. Herath I, Vithanage M (2015) Phytoremediation in constructed wetlands. In: Phytoremediation. Springer, Cham, pp 243–263Google Scholar
  25. Herrera-Melián JA, Torres-Padrón ME, Betancor-Abreu A, Sosa-Ferrera Z, Santana-Rodríguez JJ, Martín-González MA, Araña J, Guedes-Alonso R (2015) Clogging reduction and removal of hormone residues with laboratory-scale vertical flow organic-based filter and hybrid wetland. Int J Environ Sci Technol 12(3):1039–1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Huang J, Cai W, Zhong Q, Wang S (2013) Influence of temperature on micro-environment, plant eco-physiology and nitrogen removal effect in subsurface flow constructed wetland. Ecol Eng 60:242–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hussain Z, Arslan M, Malik MH, Mohsin M, Iqbal S, Afzal M (2018) Treatment of the textile industry effluent in a pilot-scale vertical flow constructed wetland system augmented with bacterial endophytes. Sci Total Environ 645:966–973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jayashree C, Arulazhagan P, Kumar SA, Kaliappan S, Yeom IT, Banu JR (2014) Bioelectricity generation from coconut husk retting wastewater in fed batch operating microbial fuel cell by phenol degrading microorganism. Biomass Bioenergy 69:249–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jayashree C, Tamilarasan K, Rajkumar M, Arulazhagan P, Yogalakhsmi KN, Srikanth M, Banu JR (2016) Treatment of seafood processing wastewater using upflow microbial fuel cell for power generation and identification of bacterial community in anodic biofilm. J Environ Manag 180:351–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ji CD, Sun TH, Ni JR (2007) Surface flow constructed wetland for heavy oil produced water treatment. Ecol Eng 98:436–441Google Scholar
  31. Jiang Y (2009) China’s water scarcity. J Environ Manag 90:3185–3196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kadlec RH, Wallace SD (2008) Treatment wetlands, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kapellakis IE, Paranychianakis NV, Tsagarakis KP, Angelakis AN (2012) Treatment of olive mill wastewater with constructed wetlands. Water 4(1):260–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kivaisi AK (2001) The potential for constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment and reuse in developing countries: a review. Ecol Eng 16:545–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Knowles P, Dotro G, Nivala J, García J (2011) Clogging in subsurface-flow treatment wetlands: occurrence and contributing factors. Ecol Eng 37(2):99–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Konnerup D, Trang NTD, Brix H (2011) Treatment of fishpond water by recirculating horizontal and vertical flow constructed wetlands in the tropics. Aquaculture 313:57–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kumar MD, Gunasekaran M, Rajesh Banu J (2018) Generation of electricity from dye industry wastewater in dual chamber fed batch operating microbial fuel cell. Int J Adv Res Ideas Innov Technol 4(4):902–907Google Scholar
  38. Kumari V, Yadav A, Haq I, Kumar S, Bharagava RN, Singh SK, Raj A (2016) Genotoxicity evaluation of tannery effluent treated with newly isolated hexavalent chromium reducing Bacillus cereus. J Environ Manag 183:204–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Li M, Wu YJ, Yu ZL, Sheng GP, Yu HQ (2009) Enhanced nitrogen and phosphorus removal from eutrophic lake water by Ipomoea aquatica with low energy ion implantation. Water Res 43:1247–1256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Li F, Lu L, Zheng X, Zhang X (2014) Three-stage horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands for organics and nitrogen removal: effect of aeration. Ecol Eng 68:90–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Li M, Wu H, Zhang J, Ngo HH, Guo W, Kong Q (2017) Nitrogen removal and nitrous oxide emission in surface flow constructed wetlands for treating sewage treatment plant effluent: effect of C/N ratios. Bioresour Technol 240:157–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Liu D, Ge Y, Chang J, Peng C, Gu B, Chan GYS, Wu X (2008) Constructed wetlands in China: recent developments and future challenges. Front Ecol Environ 7:261–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lv T, Wu S, Hong H, Chen L, Dong R (2013) Dynamics of nitrobenzene degradation and interactions with nitrogen transformations in laboratory-scale constructed wetlands. Bioresour Technol 133:529–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Maine MA, Suñe N, Hadad H, Sánchez G (2007) Temporal and spatial variation of phosphate distribution in the sediment of free water surface constructed wetland. Sci Total Environ 380:75–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Maine MA, Hadad HR, Sánchez GC, Di Luca GA, Mufarrege MM, Caffaratti SE, Pedro MC (2017) Long-term performance of two free-water surface wetlands for metallurgical effluent treatment. Ecol Eng 98:372–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mander Ü, Dotro G, Ebie Y, Towprayoon S, Chiemchaisri C, Nogueira SF, Jamsranjav B, Kasak K, Truu J, Tournebize J, Mitsch WJ (2014) Greenhouse gas emission in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: a review. Ecol Eng 66:19–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mantovi P, Marmiroli M, Maestri E, Tagliavini S, Piccinni S, Marmiroli N (2003) Application of a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland on treatment of dairy parlor wastewater. Bioresour Technol 88(2):85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mburu N, Tebitendwa SM, Rousseau DPL, van Bruggen JJA, Lens PNL (2013a) Performance evaluation of horizontal subsurface flow-constructed wetlands for the treatment of domestic wastewater in the tropics. J Environ Eng 139:358–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mburu N, Tebitendwa SM, Van Bruggen JJ, Rousseau DP, Lens PN (2013b) Performance comparison and economics analysis of waste stabilization ponds and horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater: a case study of the Juja sewage treatment works. J Environ Manag 128:220–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Meng P, Pei H, Hu W, Shao Y, Li Z (2014) How to increase microbial degradation in constructed wetlands: influencing factors and improvement measures. Bioresour Technol 157:316–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Meutia AA (2001) Treatment of laboratory wastewater in a tropical constructed wetland comparing surface and subsurface flow. Water Sci Technol 44(11–12):499–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mishra S, Bharagava RN, More N, Yadav A, Zainith S, Mani S, Chowdhary P (2018) Heavy metal contamination: an alarming threat to environment and human health. In: Sobti RS, Arora NK, Kothari R (eds) Environmental biotechnology: for sustainable future. Springer Nature Singapore Pvt. Ltd, Singapore, pp 103–125Google Scholar
  53. Mishra S, Saratale GD, Ferreira LFR, Bharagava RN (2019) Plant-microbe interaction: an eco-friendly approach for the remediation of metal contaminated environments. Elsevier, Academic (in press)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nahlik AM, Mitsch WJ (2006) Tropical treatment wetlands dominated by free floating macrophytes for water quality improvement in Costa Rica. Ecol Eng 28:246–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nguyen XC, Chang SW, Nguyen TL, Ngo HH, Kumar G, Banu JR, Vu MC, Le HS, Nguyen DD (2018) A hybrid constructed wetland for organic-material and nutrient removal from sewage: process performance and multi-kinetic models. J Environ Manag 222:378–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Nikolaou IE, Stefanakis AI (2018) A novel response of industry to wastewater treatment with constructed wetlands: a managerial view through system dynamic techniques. In: Stefanakis AI (ed) Constructed wetlands for industrial wastewater treatment. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, pp 529–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nivala J, Knowles P, Dotro G, García J, Wallace S (2012) Clogging in subsurface-flow treatment wetlands: measurement, modeling and management. Water Res 46(6):1625–1640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pedescoll A, Sidrach-Cardona R, Sánchez JC, Carretero J, Garfi M, Bécares E (2013) Design configurations affecting flow pattern and solids accumulation in horizontal free water and subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Water Res 47(3):1448–1458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pempkowiak HO, Gajewska M, Wojciechowska E, Pempkowiak J (2015) Treatment wetlands for environmental pollution control. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  60. Peng J, Song Y, Liu Z, Gao H, Yu H (2012) Performance of a novel circular-flow corridor wetland toward the treatment of simulated high-strength swine wastewater. Ecol Eng 49:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rani N, Maheshwari RC, Kumar V, Vijay VK (2011) Purification of pulp and paper mill effluent through Typha and Canna using constructed wetlands technology. J Water Reuse Desal 1(4):237–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Riggio VA, Ruffino B, Campo G, Comino E, Comoglio C, Zanetti M (2018) Constructed wetlands for the reuse of industrial wastewater: a case-study. J Clean Prod 171:723–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rossmann M, de Matos AT, Abreu EC, e Silva FF, Borges AC (2012) Performance of constructed wetlands in the treatment of aerated coffee processing wastewater: removal of nutrients and phenolic compounds. Ecol Eng 49:264–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Rousseau DPL, Vanrolleghem PA, De Pauw N (2004) Constructed wetlands in Flanders: a performance analysis. Ecol Eng 23:151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Saeed T, Sun G (2012) A review on nitrogen and organics removal mechanisms in subsurface flow constructed wetlands: dependency on environmental parameters, operating conditions and supporting media. J Environ Manag 112:429–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Saeed T, Sun G (2013) A lab-scale study of constructed wetlands with sugarcane bagasse and sand media for the treatment of textile wastewater. Bioresour Technol 128:438–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Saeed T, Sun G (2017) A comprehensive review on nutrients and organics removal from different wastewaters employing subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 47(4):203–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Saeed T, Afrin R, Al Muyeed A, Sun G (2012) Treatment of tannery wastewater in a pilot-scale hybrid constructed wetland system in Bangladesh. Chemosphere 88(9):1065–1073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Saxena G, Purchase D, Mulla SI, Saratale GD, Bharagava RN (2019) Phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated sites: eco-environmental concerns, field studies, sustainability issues and future prospects. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 249:71–131Google Scholar
  70. Seidel K (1961) ZurProblematik der Keim- und Pflanzengewasser. Verh Internat. Verein. Limnology 14:1035–1039Google Scholar
  71. Senzia MA, Mashauri DA, Mayo AW (2003) Suitability of constructed wetlands and waste stabilization ponds in wastewater treatment: nitrogen transformation and removal. Phys Chem Earth 28:1117–1124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Serrano L, De la Varga D, Ruiz I, Soto M (2011) Winery wastewater treatment in a hybrid constructed wetland. Ecol Eng 37(5):744–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sharma PK, Minakshi D, Rani A, Malaviya P (2018) Treatment efficiency of vertical flow constructed wetland systems operated under different recirculation rates. Ecol Eng 120:474–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Shrestha RR, Haberl R, Laber J, Manandhar R, Mader J (2001) Application of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in Nepal. Water Sci Technol 44(11–12):381–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Stefanakis AI (2018) Introduction to constructed wetland technology. In: Stefanakis AI (ed) Constructed wetlands for industrial wastewater treatment. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, pp 1–21Google Scholar
  76. Stefanakis AI, Tsihrintzis VA (2009) Effect of outlet water level raising and effluent recirculation on removal efficiency of pilot-scale, horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Desalination 248(3):961–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Stefanakis AA, Tsihrintzis SC, Vassilios A (2014) Vertical flow constructed wetlands. Elsevier Inc, pp 1–16Google Scholar
  78. Tamilarasan K, Arulazhagan P, Sakthivel S, Jamal TM, Banu JR (2018) Deriving electricity from dye processing wastewater using single chamber microbial fuel cell with carbon brush anode and platinum nano coated air cathode. 3 Biotech 8(10):437Google Scholar
  79. Tanner CC (2001) Growth and nutrient dynamics of soft-stem bulrush in constructed wetlands treating nutrient-rich wastewater. Wetl Ecol Manag 9:49–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tao M, He F, Xu D, Li M, Wu ZB (2010) How artificial aeration improved the sewage treatment of an integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland. Pol J Environ Stud 19(1):181–189Google Scholar
  81. Tee HC, Lim PE, Seng CE, Nawi MAM (2012) Newly developed baffled subsurface-flow constructed wetland for the enhancement of nitrogen removal. Bioresour Technol 104:235–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Trang NTD, Konnerup D, Schierup HH, Chiem NH, Tuan LA, Brix H (2010) Kinetics of pollutant removal from domestic wastewater in a tropical horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland system: effects of hydraulic loading rate. Ecol Eng 36:527–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Van Oirschot D (2015) RietLand vertical flow wetlands: 16 years of experience in the Netherlands and Belgium. In: Proceedings 12th IWA international conference on wetland systems for water pollution controlGoogle Scholar
  84. Varga DL, Díaz MA, Ruiz I, Soto M (2013) Avoiding clogging in constructed wetlands by using anaerobic digesters as pre-treatment. Ecol Eng 52:262–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Vymazal J (2005) Horizontal sub-surface flow and hybrid constructed wetlands systems for wastewater treatment. Ecol Eng 25:478–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Vymazal J (2011a) Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: five decades of experience. Environ Sci Technol 45(1):61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Vymazal J (2011b) Plants used in constructed wetlands with horizontal subsurface flow: a review. Hydrobiologia 674(1):133–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Vymazal J (2014) Constructed wetlands for treatment of industrial wastewaters: a review. Ecol Eng 73:724–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Vymazal J (2018) Does clogging affect long-term removal of organics and suspended solids in gravel-based horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands? Chem Eng J 331:663–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Vymazal J, Kröpfelová L (2008) Wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands with horizontal sub-surface flow. Springer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wallace SD, Knight RL (2006) Small scale constructed wetland treatment systems. Feasibility, design criteria, and O&M requirements. Water Environment Research Foundation, AlexandriaGoogle Scholar
  92. Wang L, Peng J, Wang BL, Yang L (2006) Design and operation of an ecosystem for municipal wastewater treatment and utilization. Water Sci Technol 54(11–12):429–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wang M, Zhang DQ, Dong JW, Tan SK (2017) Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in cold climate-a review. J Environ Sci 57:293–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Weerakoon GMPR, Jinadasa KBSN, Herath GBB, Mowjood MIM, Van Bruggen JJA (2013) Impact of the hydraulic loading rate on pollutants removal in tropical horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Ecol Eng 61:154–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Worku A, Tefera N, Kloos H, Benor S (2018) Constructed wetlands for phytoremediation of industrial wastewater in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Nanotechnol Environ Eng 3(1):9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wu ZB (2008) Integrated vertical-flow constructed wetland. Science Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  97. Wu S, Kuschk P, Brix H, Vymazal J, Dong R (2014) Development of constructed wetlands in performance intensifications for wastewater treatment: a nitrogen and organic matter targeted review. Water Res 57:40–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wu S, Wallace S, Brix H, Kuschk P, Kirui WK, Masi F, Dong R (2015) Treatment of industrial effluents in constructed wetlands: challenges, operational strategies and overall performance. Environ Pollut 201:107–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wu Y, Han R, Yang X, Zhang Y, Zhang R (2017) Long-term performance of an integrated constructed wetland for advanced treatment of mixed wastewater. Ecol Eng 99:91–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Yadav AK, Dash P, Mohanty A, Abbassi R, Mishra BK (2012) Performance assessment of innovative constructed wetland-microbial fuel cell for electricity production and dye removal. Ecol Eng 47:126–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Yadav A, Mishra S, Kaithwas G, Raj A, Bharagava RN (2016a) Organic pollutants and pathogenic bacteria in tannery wastewater and their removal strategies. In: Singh JS, Singh DP (eds) Microbes and environmental management. Studium Press (India) Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, pp 104–130Google Scholar
  102. Yadav A, Raj A, Bharagava RN (2016b) Detection and characterization of a multidrug and multi-metal resistant Enterobacterium Pantoea sp. from tannery wastewater after secondary treatment process. Int J Plant Environ 1(2):37–41Google Scholar
  103. Yadav A, Chowdhary P, Kaithwas G, Bharagava RN (2017) Toxic metals in the environment, their threats on ecosystem and bioremediation approaches. In: Das S, Singh HR (eds) Handbook of metal-microbe interaction and bioremediation. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 128–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Yadav AK, Srivastava P, Kumar N, Abbassi R, Mishra BK (2018) Constructed wetland-microbial fuel cell: an emerging integrated technology for potential industrial wastewater treatment and bioelectricity generation. In: Stefanakis AI (ed) Constructed wetlands for industrial wastewater treatment. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, pp 493–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Yadav A, Raj A, Purchase D, Ferreira LFR, Saratale GD, Bharagava RN (2019) Phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluation of organic and inorganic pollutants rich tannery wastewater from a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) in Unnao district, India using Vigna radiata and Allium cepa. Chemosphere 224:324–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Yang ZF, Zheng SK, Chen JJ, Sun M (2008) Purification of nitrate-rich agricultural runoff by a hydroponic system. Bioresour Technol 99:8049–8053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Zhang DQ, Tan SK, Gersberg RM, Zhu JF, Sadreddini S, Li YF (2012) Nutrient removal in tropical subsurface flow constructed wetlands under batch and continuous flow conditions. J Environ Manag 96:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Zhang DQ, Gersberg RM, Ng WJ, Tan SK (2014) Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in aquatic plant-based systems: a review. Environ Pollut 184:620–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Zhang J, Sun H, Wang W, Hu Z, Yin X, Ngo HH, Guo W, Fan J (2017) Enhancement of surface flow constructed wetlands performance at low temperature through seasonal plant collocation. Bioresour Technol 224:222–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Zheng Y, Wang CX, Ge Y, Dzakpasu M, Zhao Y, Xiong J (2015) Effects of annual harvesting on plants growth and nutrients removal in surface-flow constructed wetlands in north western China. Ecol Eng 83:268–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Dinesh Kumar
    • 1
  • S. Gopikumar
    • 2
  • Do Khac Uan
    • 3
  • S. Adishkumar
    • 4
  • J. Rajesh Banu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringAnna University Regional CampusTirunelveliIndia
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringSCAD College of Engineering and TechnologyTirunelveliIndia
  3. 3.School of Environmental Science and Technology, Hanoi University of Science and TechnologyHanoiVietnam
  4. 4.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity V.O.C College of Engineering, Anna UniversityThoothukudiIndia

Personalised recommendations