Microbial Communities in Constructed Wetland Microcosms and Their Role in Treatment of Domestic Wastewater

  • Saroj Kumar
  • Bhanu Pratap
  • Divya Dubey
  • Venkatesh Dutta
Part of the Microorganisms for Sustainability book series (MICRO, volume 18)


Microbial biomass is the main reducer for majority of organics and nutrients. The aerobic region of constructed wetland microcosms (CWMs) is majorly characterized by presence of Nitrosomonas and Pseudomonas spp. The diversity of ammonia-oxidizers mainly Nitrosospira sp. is higher in CWMs designed to treat domestic wastewater as compared to other bacteria studied. The activity of enzymes within CWMs is a key indicator towards role of microbial community. Rhizospheric region has diverse elements that comprises minerals, sugars, vitamins, organic acids, polysaccharides, phenol and various other organic materials that encourages the microbial groups to degrade wastewater pollutants. The presence of macrophytes has significant effects on microbial richness and community structure. The root exudates liberated by macrophytes are also able to alter the richness and diversity of the microbial population. The decomposition rates of microbes become slow as temperatures drop, which can be optimized by increasing the size of wetlands to accomplish the slower reaction rates. The pH of wastewater has also a strong effect on various microbially mediated reactions and processes. Temperature, hydrologic conditions, macrophytic diversity/richness and biotic succession strongly impact the microbial community structure. A little alteration in the diversity or community structure of the microorganisms directly affects the treatment performance of CWMs.


Microbial diversity/richness Constructed wetland microcosms Removal efficiency Enzyme activity Macrophytes 



The authors are grateful to the Department of Environmental Science, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University for providing infrastructural facility and University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India for financial assistance as Junior Research Fellowship (Ref. no. 3525/SC/NET-JULY 2016) to the first author of this chapter.


  1. Adrados B, Sánchez O, Arias CA, Becares E, Garrido L, Mas J, Morató J (2014) Microbial communities from different types of natural wastewater treatment systems: vertical and horizontal flow constructed wetlands and biofilters. Water Res 55:304–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahn C, Gillevet PM, Sikaroodi M (2007) Molecular characterization of microbial communities in treatment microcosm wetlands as influenced by macrophytes and phosphorus loading. Ecol Indic 7(4):852–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AlMulla A (2016) Sharjah integrated water management. In: Proceedings of the water and energy exchange (WEX 2016), 29Google Scholar
  4. Alufasi R, Gere J, Chakauya E, Lebea P, Parawira W, Chingwaru W (2017) Mechanisms of pathogen removal by macrophytes in constructed wetlands. Environ Technol Rev 6(1):135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ansola G, Arroyo P, de Miera LES (2014) Characterization of the soil bacterial community structure and composition of natural and constructed wetlands. Sci Total Environ 473:63–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aon MA, Colaneri AC (2001) II. Temporal and spatial evolution of enzymatic activities and physico-chemical properties in an agricultural soil. Appl Soil Ecol 18(3):255–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Avila C, Bayona JM, Martín I, Salas JJ, García J (2015) Emerging organic contaminant removal in a full-scale hybrid constructed wetland system for wastewater treatment and reuse. Ecol Eng 80:108–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Behrends L, Houke L, Bailey E, Jansen P, Brown D (2001) Reciprocating constructed wetlands for treating industrial, municipal and agricultural wastewater. Water Sci Technol 44(11–12):399–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bertin C, Yang X, Weston LA (2003) The role of root exudates and allelochemicals in the rhizosphere. Plant Soil 256(1):67–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bitton G (2005) Wastewater microbiology. Wiley, HobokenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bojcevska H, Tonderski K (2007) Impact of loads, season, and plant species on the performance of a tropical constructed wetland polishing effluent from sugar factory stabilization ponds. Ecol Eng 29(1):66–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Calheiros CS, Rangel AO, Castro PM (2008a) Evaluation of different substrates to support the growth of Typha latifolia in constructed wetlands treating tannery wastewater over long-term operation. Bioresour Technol 99(15):6866–6877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Calheiros CS, Rangel AO, Castro PM (2008b) The effects of tannery wastewater on the development of different plant species and chromium accumulation in Phragmites australis. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 55(3):404–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Calheiros CS, Duque AF, Moura A, Henriques IS, Correia A, Rangel AO, Castro PM (2009a) Changes in the bacterial community structure in two-stage constructed wetlands with different plants for industrial wastewater treatment. Bioresour Technol 100(13):3228–3235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Calheiros CS, Duque AF, Moura A, Henriques IS, Correia A, Rangel AO, Castro PM (2009b) Substrate effect on bacterial communities from constructed wetlands planted with Typha latifolia treating industrial wastewater. Ecol Eng 35(5):744–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Calheiros CS, Teixeira A, Pires C (2010) Bacterial community dynamics in horizontal flow constructed wetlands with different plants for high salinity industrial wastewater polishing. Water Res 44:5032–5038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Calheiros CS, Rangel AO, Castro PM (2014) Constructed wetlands for tannery wastewater treatment in Portugal: ten years of experience. Int J Phytoremediation 16(9):859–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Calheiros CSC, Pereira SIA, Brix H, Rangel AOSS, Castro PML (2017) Assessment of culturable bacterial endophytic communities colonizing Canna flaccida inhabiting a wastewater treatment constructed wetland. Ecol Eng 98:418–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carballeira T, Ruiz I, Soto M (2017) Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability of accumulated solids in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Int Biodeterior Biodegradation 119:396–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carvalho PN, Basto MCP, Almeida CMR (2012) Potential of Phragmites australis for the removal of veterinary pharmaceuticals from aquatic media. Bioresour Technol 116:497–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Caselles-Osorio A, Villafañe P, Caballero V, Manzano Y (2011) Efficiency of mesocosm-scale constructed wetland systems for treatment of sanitary wastewater under tropical conditions. Water Air Soil Pollut 220(1–4):161–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Caselles-Osorio A, Vega H, Lancheros JC, Casierra-Martínez HA, Mosquera JE (2017) Horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland removal efficiency using Cyperus articulatus L. Ecol Eng 99:479–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chan SY, Tsang YF, Chua H, Sin SN, Cui LH (2008) Performance study of vegetated sequencing batch coal slag bed treating domestic wastewater in suburban area. Bioresour Technol 99(9):3774–3781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chang D, Ma Z, Wang X (2013) Framework of wastewater reclamation and reuse policies (WRRPs) in China: comparative analysis across levels and areas. Environ Sci Pol 33:41–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chen Y, Wen Y, Cheng J, Xue C, Yang D, Zhou Q (2011) Effects of dissolved oxygen on extracellular enzymes activities and transformation of carbon sources from plant biomass: implications for denitrification in constructed wetlands. Bioresour Technol 102(3):2433–2440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cui L, Ouyang Y, Lou Q, Yang F, Chen Y, Zhu W, Luo S (2010) Removal of nutrients from wastewater with Canna indica L. under different vertical-flow constructed wetland conditions. Ecol Eng 36(8):1083–1088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dong X, Reddy GB (2010) Soil bacterial communities in constructed wetlands treated with swine wastewater using PCR-DGGE technique. Bioresour Technol 101(4):1175–1182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Duarte B, Reboreda R, Caçador I (2008) Seasonal variation of extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA) and its influence on metal speciation in a polluted salt marsh. Chemosphere 73(7):1056–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Faulwetter JL, Gagnon V, Sundberg C, Chazarenc F, Burr MD, Brisson J et al (2009) Microbial processes influencing performance of treatment wetlands: a review. Ecol Eng 35(6):987–1004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Faulwetter JL, Burr MD, Parker AE, Stein OR, Camper AK (2013) Influence of season and plant species on the abundance and diversity of sulfate reducing bacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria in constructed wetland microcosms. Microb Ecol 65(1):111–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Freeman C, Lock MA, Hughes S, Reynolds B, Hudson JA (1997) Nitrous oxide emissions and the use of wetlands for water quality amelioration. Environ Sci Technol 31(8):2438–2440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Garcı́a J, Ojeda E, Sales E, Chico F, Pı́riz T, Aguirre P, Mujeriego R (2003) Spatial variations of temperature, redox potential, and contaminants in horizontal flow reed beds. Ecol Eng 21(2–3):129–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hamilton SK, Sippel SJ, Melack JM (1995) Oxygen depletion and carbon dioxide and methane production in waters of the Pantanal wetland of Brazil. Biogeochemistry 30(2):115–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hilton BL (1993) Performance evaluation of a closed ecological life support system (CELSS) employing constructed wetlands. In: Moshiri GA (ed) Constructed wetlands for water quality improvement. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 117–125Google Scholar
  35. Hoffland E, van den Boogaard RIKI, Nelemans JAAP, Findenegg G (1992) Biosynthesis and root exudation of citric and malic acids in phosphate-starved rape plants. New Phytol 122(4):675–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hua Y, Peng L, Zhang S, Heal KV, Zhao J, Zhu D (2017) Effects of plants and temperature on nitrogen removal and microbiology in pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating domestic wastewater. Ecol Eng 108:70–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ibekwe AM, Grieve CM, Lyon SR (2003) Characterization of microbial communities and composition in constructed dairy wetland wastewater effluent. Appl Environ Microbiol 69(9):5060–5069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kadlec RH (1995) Overview: surface flow constructed wetlands. Water Sci Technol 32(3):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kadlec RH, Reddy KR (2001) Temperature effects in treatment wetlands. Water Environ Res 73(5):543–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kang H, Freeman C, Lee D, Mitsch WJ (1998) Enzyme activities in constructed wetlands: implication for water quality amelioration. Hydrobiologia 368(1–3):231–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kent AD, Yannarell AC, Rusak JA, Triplett EW, McMahon KD (2007) Synchrony in aquatic microbial community dynamics. ISME J 1(1):38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kong L, Wang YB, Zhao LN, Chen ZH (2009) Enzyme and root activities in surface-flow constructed wetlands. Chemosphere 76(5):601–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Krasnits E, Friedler E, Sabbah I, Beliavski M, Tarre S, Green M (2009) Spatial distribution of major microbial groups in a well-established constructed wetland treating municipal wastewater. Ecol Eng 35(7):1085–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kröger R, Lizotte RE, Douglas Shields F, Usborne E (2012) Inundation influences on bioavailability of phosphorus in managed wetland sediments in agricultural landscapes. J Environ Qual 41(2):604–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kumar S, Dutta V (2019a) Efficiency of constructed wetland microcosms (CWMs) for the treatment of domestic wastewater using aquatic macrophytes. In: Environmental biotechnology: for sustainable future. Springer, Singapore, pp 287–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kumar S, Dutta V (2019b) Constructed wetland microcosms as sustainable technology for domestic wastewater treatment: an overview. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26(12):11662–11673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Laskov C, Horn O, Hupfer M (2006) Environmental factors regulating the radial oxygen loss from roots of Myriophyllum spicatum and Potamogeton crispus. Aquat Bot 84(4):333–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lee CG, Fletcher TD, Sun G (2009) Nitrogen removal in constructed wetland systems. Eng Life Sci 9(1):11–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Llanos-Lizcano A, Barraza E, Narvaez A, Varela L, Caselles-Osorio A (2019) Efficiency of pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands and microbial community composition operating under tropical conditions. Int J Phytoremediation 21(1):34–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Long Y, Yi H, Chen S, Zhang Z, Cui K, Bing Y et al (2016) Influences of plant type on bacterial and archaeal communities in constructed wetland treating polluted river water. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(19):19570–19579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Longstreth DJ, Borkhsenious ON (2000) Root cell ultrastructure in developing aerenchyma tissue of three wetland species. Ann Bot 86(3):641–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Martens DA, Johanson JB, Frankenberger WT (1992) Production and persistence of soil enzymes with repeated addition of organic residues. Soil Sci 153(1):53–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mentzer JL, Goodman RM, Balser TC (2006) Microbial response over time to hydrologic and fertilization treatments in a simulated wet prairie. Plant Soil 284(1–2):85–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Miersch J, Tschimedbalshir M, Bärlocher F, Grams Y, Pierau B, Schierhorn A, Krauss GJ (2001) Heavy metals and thiol compounds in Mucor racemosus and Articulospora tetracladia. Mycol Res 105(7):883–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mitchell C, McNevin D (2001) Alternative analysis of BOD removal in subsurface flow constructed wetlands employing Monod kinetics. Water Res 35(5):1295–1303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mitsch WJ, Gosselink JG (2007) Wetlands, 4th edn. Wiley, Hoboken, p 582Google Scholar
  57. Morvannou A, Choubert JM, Vanclooster M, Molle P (2014) Modeling nitrogen removal in a vertical flow constructed wetland treating directly domestic wastewater. Ecol Eng 70:379–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Muyzer G, De Waal EC, Uitterlinden AG (1993) Profiling of complex microbial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA. Appl Environ Microbiol 59(3):695–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Neori A, Reddy KR, Číšková-Končalová H, Agami M (2000) Bioactive chemicals and biological—biochemical activities and their functions in rhizospheres of wetland plants. Bot Rev 66(3):350–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Niemi RM, Vepsäläinen M, Wallenius K, Simpanen S, Alakukku L, Pietola L (2005) Temporal and soil depth-related variation in soil enzyme activities and in root growth of red clover (Trifolium pratense) and timothy (Phleum pratense) in the field. Appl Soil Ecol 30(2):113–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Niveditha TMA (2019) Constructed wet lands—An efficient green technology for environmental sustainability—An over view. Int J Basic Appl Res 9(4):528–536Google Scholar
  62. Oehl F, Frossard E, Fliessbach A, Dubois D, Oberson A (2004) Basal organic phosphorus mineralization in soils under different farming systems. Soil Biol Biochem 36(4):667–675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Oved T, Shaviv A, Goldrath T, Mandelbaum RT, Minz D (2001) Influence of effluent irrigation on community composition and function of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in soil. Appl Environ Microbiol 67:3426–3433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pedescoll A, Corzo A, Álvarez E, García J, Puigagut J (2011) The effect of primary treatment and flow regime on clogging development in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: an experimental evaluation. Water Res 45(12):3579–3589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Peralta RM, Ahn C, Gillevet PM (2013) Characterization of soil bacterial community structure and physicochemical properties in created and natural wetlands. Sci Total Environ 443:725–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Puigagut J, Caselles-Osorio A, Vaello N, García J (2008) Fractionation, biodegradability and particle-size distribution of organic matter in horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands. In: Wastewater treatment, plant dynamics and management in constructed and natural wetlands. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 289–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Radcliffe JC (2006) Future directions for water recycling in Australia. Desalination 187(1–3):77–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Reboreda R, Caçador I (2008) Enzymatic activity in the rhizosphere of Spartina maritima: potential contribution for phytoremediation of metals. Mar Environ Res 65(1):77–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rowan AK, Snape JR, Fearnside D, Barer MR, Curtis TP, Head IM (2003) Composition and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial communities in wastewater treatment reactors of different design treating identical wastewater. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 43:195–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Saunders AM, Larsen P, Nielsen PH (2013) Comparison of nutrient-removing microbial communities in activated sludge from full-scale MBRs and conventional plants. Water Sci Technol 68(2):366–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Saxena G, Purchase D, Mulla SI, Saratale GD, Bharagava RN (2019) Phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated sites: eco-environmental concerns, field studies, sustainability issues and future prospects. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 249:71–131Google Scholar
  72. Shackle VJ, Freeman C, Reynolds B (2000) Carbon supply and the regulation of enzyme activity in constructed wetlands. Soil Biol Biochem 32(13):1935–1940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shelef O, Gross A, Rachmilevitch S (2013) Role of plants in a constructed wetland: current and new perspectives. Water 5(2):405–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sleytr K, Tietz A, Langergraber G, Haberl R, Sessitsch A (2009) Diversity of abundant bacteria in subsurface vertical flow constructed wetlands. Ecol Eng 35(6):1021–1025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Steenwerth KL, Jackson LE, Carlisle EA, Scow KM (2006) Microbial communities of a native perennial bunchgrass do not respond consistently across a gradient of land-use intensification. Soil Biol Biochem 38(7):1797–1811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tanner CC, Headley TR (2011) Components of floating emergent macrophyte treatment wetlands influencing removal of stormwater pollutants. Ecol Eng 37(3):474–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tian T, Tam NF, Zan Q, Cheung SG, Shin PK, Wong YS et al (2017) Performance and bacterial community structure of a 10-years old constructed mangrove wetland. Mar Pollut Bull 124(2):1096–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Tram Vo P, Ngo HH, Guo W, Zhou JL, Nguyen PD, Listowski A, Wang XC (2014) A mini-review on the impacts of climate change on wastewater reclamation and reuse. Sci Total Environ 494–495:9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Truu J, Nurk K, Juhanson J, Mander U (2005) Variation of microbiological parameters within planted soil filter for domestic wastewater treatment. J Environ Sci Health 40(6–7):1191–1200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Truu M, Juhanson J, Truu J (2009) Microbial biomass, activity and community composition in constructed wetlands. Sci Total Environ 407(13):3958–3971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), National Risk Management Research Laboratory, US Agency for International Development (2012) 2012 guidelines for water reuse, EPA/600/R-12/618. US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Wastewater Management, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  82. Valipour A, Ahn YH (2016) Constructed wetlands as sustainable ecotechnologies in decentralization practices: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(1):180–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Vera L, Martel G, Márquez M (2013) Two years monitoring of the natural system for wastewater reclamation in Santa Lucía, Gran Canaria Island. Ecol Eng 50:21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wang Q, Xie H, Ngo HH, Guo W, Zhang J, Liu C et al (2016) Microbial abundance and community in subsurface flow constructed wetland microcosms: role of plant presence. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(5):4036–4045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Weber KP, Legge RL (2011) Dynamics in the bacterial community-level physiological profiles and hydrological characteristics of constructed wetland mesocosms during start-up. Ecol Eng 37(5):666–677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wetzel RG (1993) Constructed wetlands: scientific foundations are critical. Constructed wetlands for water quality improvement. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 3–7Google Scholar
  87. Wiessner A, Kappelmeyer U, Kuschk P, Kästner M (2005) Sulphate reduction and the removal of carbon and ammonia in a laboratory-scale constructed wetland. Water Res 39(19):4643–4650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. World Bank Group (2013) Wastewater reuse. Accessed 10 Aug 2016
  89. World Health Organization (WHO) (2006) WHO guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater, Policy and regulatory aspects, vol 1. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  90. Wu J, Zhang J, Jia W, Xie H, Gu RR, Li C, Gao B (2009) Impact of COD/N ratio on nitrous oxide emission from microcosm wetlands and their performance in removing nitrogen from wastewater. Bioresour Technol 100(12):2910–2917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wu Y, Li T, Yang L (2012) Mechanisms of removing pollutants from aqueous solutions by microorganisms and their aggregates: a review. Bioresour Technol 107:10–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wu Q, Hu Y, Li S, Peng S, Zhao H (2016) Microbial mechanisms of using enhanced ecological floating beds for eutrophic water improvement. Bioresour Technol 211:451–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Xiong J, Guo G, Mahmood Q, Yue M (2011) Nitrogen removal from secondary effluent by using integrated constructed wetland system. Ecol Eng 37(4):659–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Yovo F, Dimon B, Suanon F, Aina M, Agani IC, Wotto VD, Togbe AFC (2016) Treatment performance of an autonomous gray water treatment system (SAUTEG) with the macrophytes Thalia geniculata. Am J Environ Protect 5(6):187–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Zaman MDHJ, Di HJ, Cameron KC, Frampton CM (1999) Gross nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates and their relationships to enzyme activities and the soil microbial biomass in soils treated with dairy shed effluent and ammonium fertilizer at different water potentials. Biol Fertil Soils 29(2):178–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Zhang CB, Huang LN, Wong MH, Zhang JT, Zhai CJ, Lan CY (2006) Characterization of soil physico-chemical and microbial parameters after revegetation near Shaoguan Pb/Zn smelter, Guangdong, PR China. Water Air Soil Pollut 177(1–4):81–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Zhang CB, Wang J, Liu WL, Zhu SX, Ge HL, Chang SX et al (2010) Effects of plant diversity on microbial biomass and community metabolic profiles in a full-scale constructed wetland. Ecol Eng 36(1):62–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zhang CB, Liu WL, Wang J, Chen T, Yuan QQ, Huang CC et al (2011a) Plant functional group richness-affected microbial community structure and function in a full-scale constructed wetland. Ecol Eng 37(9):1360–1368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Zhang TT, Wang LL, He ZX, Zhang D (2011b) Growth inhibition and biochemical changes of cyanobacteria induced by emergent macrophyte Thalia dealbata roots. Biochem Syst Ecol 39(2):88–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zhang D, Wang C, Zhang L, Xu D, Liu B, Zhou Q, Wu Z (2016) Structural and metabolic responses of microbial community to sewage-borne chlorpyrifos in constructed wetlands. J Environ Sci 44:4–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zhi E, Song Y, Duan L, Yu H, Peng J (2015) Spatial distribution and diversity of microbial community in large-scale constructed wetland of the Liao river conservation area. Environ Earth Sci 73(9):5085–5094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Zhong F, Wu J, Dai Y, Yang L, Zhang Z, Cheng S, Zhang Q (2015) Bacterial community analysis by PCR-DGGE and 454-pyrosequencing of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands with front aeration. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 99(3):1499–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zhu S, Huang X, Ho S-H, Wang L, Yang J (2017) Effect of plant species compositions on performance of lab-scale constructed wetland through investigating photosynthesis and microbial communities. Bioresour Technol 229:196–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saroj Kumar
    • 1
  • Bhanu Pratap
    • 1
  • Divya Dubey
    • 1
  • Venkatesh Dutta
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science (DES)School of Environmental Sciences (SES), Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar (A Central) UniversityLucknowIndia

Personalised recommendations