Advertisement

Forestry Ecological Engineering in Coastal Saline–Alkali Soils

  • Jianfeng ZhangEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

There are about 27 million ha of saline–alkali land in China, including 0.06 million ha of cultivated land and 0.21 million ha of saline–alkali wasteland, mainly distributed in the northeast, north China, northwest inland areas and the coastal areas north of the Yangtze River. Affected by many factors, the area of secondary salinized soil at home and abroad is still expanding. The main ways to prevent salinization are to reduce the groundwater level, improve soil physicochemical properties, and reduce evaporation. According to this principle, selecting suitable tree species and plants and carrying out ecological restoration through vegetation construction is an effective way to improve the use of saline–alkali land. The principle of ecological restoration is to fully understand the formation mechanism, hazard characteristics, and distribution pattern of saline–alkali land, to construct and restore vegetation according to the principle of restoration ecology, and to reduce soil salinity and improve soil by plant adsorption of salt ions, so that the soil structure and farmland ecological environment are enhanced and help to achieve sustainable and efficient use of saline–alkali land. The main technical measures for the ecological restoration of saline–alkali land include water conservancy engineering improvement, biological improvement, agricultural improvement, chemical improvement, and so on. The improvement of water conservancy projects needs to establish and improve the irrigation and drainage engineering system, formulate measures to improve salinization state, and adopt reasonable irrigation techniques; biological improvement is to plant trees in saline–alkaline soil, plant green manure grass and salt-tolerant crops, and reduce surface water evaporation so as to improve physical and chemical properties of the soil; agricultural improvement is to optimize land use, appropriate deep tillage, increase to apply organic fertilizer and perform grass grain rotation, and so on, to reduce soil salinity and prevent soil salinization; chemical improvement mainly uses chemical amendments to improve saline–alkali land and reduce soil alkali content and increase land production potential.

Keywords

Saline–alkali land Ecological restoration Secondary salinization Forestry Afforestation 

References

  1. Essa TA (2002) Effect of salinity stress on growth and nutrient composition of three soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) cultivars. J Agron Crop Sci 188(2):86–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Kang LL, Wang YQ, Liu X et al (2003) Effect of soil and water conservation measures on soil chemical properties. Bull Soil Water Conserv 23(1):6–48Google Scholar
  3. Li GX, Li J, Chen YT et al (2010) Coastal tree species selection and key planting measures with new Tideland reclamation. Prot For Sci Technol 1:14–16Google Scholar
  4. Liao M (2000) Effects of pH on toxicity of cadmium towards soil microbial biomass in the presence of organic acids. J Agro-Environ Sci 19(4):236–238Google Scholar
  5. Liu YC, He WS, He JZ et al (2007) Progress of improvement and utilization of saline-alkali land. J Agric Sci 28(2):68–71Google Scholar
  6. Niu DL, Wang QJ (2002) Research progress on saline-alkali field control. Chin J Soil Sci 33(6):449–455Google Scholar
  7. Ruan WJ, Shan QH, Shen LM et al (2012) Soil characteristics and afforestation tree selection in saline-alkali land along the coast of eastern Zhejiang. Shandong For Sci Technol 42(6):46–48Google Scholar
  8. Shan QH, Zhang JF, Ruan WJ et al (2011) Response of soil quality indicators to comprehensive amelioration measures in coastal salt-affected land. Acta Ecol Sin 31(20):6072–6079Google Scholar
  9. Sun H, Zhang JF, Xu HS et al (2016) Variations of soil microbial community composition and enzyme activities with different salinities on Yuyao coast, Zhejiang, China. Chin J Appl Ecol 27(10):3361–3370Google Scholar
  10. Wang GB, Hao YS, Wang B et al (2006) Influence of land-use change on soil respiration and soil microbial biomass. J Beijing For Univ 28(S2):73–79Google Scholar
  11. Wei YC, Kang LL, Wang YQ et al (2003) Effect of soil and water conservation measures on soil physical behaviors-Taking World Bank’s Loan Project area of soil and water conservation on Loess Plateau as example. J Soil Water Conserv 17(5):114–116Google Scholar
  12. Xing SJ, Zhang JF (2006) Land degradation mechanism and vegetation restoration technology in the Yellow River Delta. China Forestry Publishing House, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  13. Yang XT, Dong HY, Shan XX et al (2003) Study on improving Seed-base materials for afforestation by direct seeding. Sci Soil Water Conserv 1(4):87–91Google Scholar
  14. Yao FM, Chen JZ, Wang LP et al (2010) Construction of the shelterbelt forest belt along the Hangzhou Bay in Yuyao City. Pract For Technol 9:20–21Google Scholar
  15. Yu RG (2011) Research on soil improvement benefits of soil and water conservation measures. Jiangxi Agricultural UniversityGoogle Scholar
  16. Yuan XP, Lei TW (2004) Soil and water conservation measures and their benefits in runoff and sediment reductions. Trans Chin Soc Agric Eng 20(2):296–300Google Scholar
  17. Zhang JF (2008) The principle and technique of ecological restoration of saline-alkali land. China Forestry Publishing House, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  18. Zhang JF (2014) Coastal saline soil rehabilitation and utilization based on forestry approach in China. Springer, Berlin, HeidelbergCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Zhang JB, Song CC (2003) The sensitive evaluation indicators of effects of land-use change on soil carbon pool. Chin J Ecol 12(4):500–504Google Scholar
  20. Zhang JF, Xing SJ (2009) Research on soil degradation of Robinia pseudoacacia plantation under environmental stress. Chin J Soil Sci 40(5):1086–1091Google Scholar
  21. Zhang JF, Li JY, Song YM et al (2003a) Advances in research on the mechanism of plant salinity tolerance and breeding of salt-tolerant plants. World For Res 16(2):16–22Google Scholar
  22. Zhang JF, Xing SJ, Xi JB et al (2003b) Measurement of physiological indicators of salinity tolerance for trees. J Northeast For Univ 31(6):90–93Google Scholar
  23. Zhang JF, Xing SJ, Zhang XD (2004a) Principles and practice of forestation in saline soil in China. Chin For Sci Technol 3(2):62–70Google Scholar
  24. Zhang JF, Li XF, Song YM et al (2004b) Effect of salinity stress on the germination rate of tree seed. Chin J Eco-Agric 12(3):27–28Google Scholar
  25. Zhang JF, Xing SJ, Sun QX et al (2004c) Study on planting techniques of nitraria sibirica in Yellow River delta region with worst salt-affected soils. J Soil Water Conserv 18(6):144–147Google Scholar
  26. Zhang JF, Xing SJ, Sun QX et al (2004d) Study on cultural technologies and salt-resistance of Nitraria sibirica in coastal areas with serious salt-affected soil. Chin For Sci Technol 3(4):12–16Google Scholar
  27. Zhang JF, Zhang XD, Zhou JX et al (2005) Effects of salinity stress on poplars seedling growth and soil enzyme activity. Chin J Appl Ecol 16(3):426–430Google Scholar
  28. Zhang JF, Zhang DS, Fan BM et al (2009) Characteristics of salt affected soil and its amelioration by trees. Chin For Sci Technol 8(1):42–45Google Scholar
  29. Zhang JF, Zhang DS, Chen GC et al (2015) Evaluation on suitability of tree species and ecological effect of coastal protective forests in Shanghai. Chin Agric Sci Bull 31(4):1–6Google Scholar
  30. Zhou T, Shi P (2006) Indirect impacts of land use change on soil organic carbon change in China. Adv Earth Sci 21(2):138–143Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Subtropical Forestry of Chinese Academy of ForestryHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations