Advertisement

Realizing the Potential of Coastal Flood-Prone Areas for Rice Production in West Bengal: Prospects and Challenges

Chapter

Abstract

Rice is the major food staple for millions of people in coastal flood-prone areas of South and Southeast Asia. In India, these areas are distributed over nine states (Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal) and four union territories (Andaman and Nicobar, Daman and Diu, Lakshadweep, and Puducherry). The state of West Bengal (WB) has the highest area under coastal saline lands (0.82 million hectares) and also one of the most flood-prone states in India. The coastal stretch of this state is part of the alluvial and deltaic plains, confined to East Midnapore, Howrah, North 24 Parganas, and South 24 Parganas districts.

As a consequence of climate change, rice production in recent years becomes highly variable due to an increased likelihood of flood and/or drought, besides widespread occurrence of saline soils with variable salinity levels. High monsoon rainfall, poor soil and water quality, and natural weather adversities like coastal storms and cyclones make agriculture in these areas highly non-remunerative, more complex, and risky. Monocropping of traditional rice varieties, unstable productivity, and high poverty among farming communities are common. Since multiple abiotic stresses are common, stress-intolerant varieties do not survive well in flood-prone coastal areas. Farmers are often compelled to implement suboptimal crop management as they do not have much access to newer varieties and improved technologies, besides being risk avert. These areas are relatively underexploited, though they hold enormous potential for more food production and act as natural laboratories for advancing rice research and for the validation of modern technologies to improve farmers’ livelihood and ensure household food and nutritional security. Here we review the outcomes of research conducted at the Rice Research Station, Chinsurah, Hooghly, and Salt and Flood Resistant Paddy Research Station, Gosaba, South 24 Parganas over the past decades, involving on-farm validations of improved varieties and technologies. The review also touches bases on the research conducted by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines, and the Institutes of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). We discussed the development and deployment of stress-tolerant rice varieties (STRVs), like Gosaba 5 (Chinsurah Nona 1) and Gosaba 6 (Chinsurah Nona 2), as an effective and affordable strategy for enhancing rice production and productivity, widening the opportunities for improving the system productivity when combined with appropriate technological interventions and best management practices. Addressing multiple abiotic stresses under the fragile rainfed ecosystems could enhance the resilience and sustainability of the rice-based cropping systems, consequently increasing and stabilizing farmers’ income in salt- and flood-affected tropical deltas of WB and coastal zones as a whole.

Keywords

Coastal soils Flood-prone areas Management practices Salinity Stress-tolerant rice varieties Submergence 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Baños, Philippines for providing necessary financial and technical support under the European Commission and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (EC-IFAD)-funded project on “Improved rice crop management for raising productivity in the submergence-prone and salt-affected rainfed lowlands in South Asia.”

References

  1. AFR (2016) Annual flood report—2016. Government of West Bengal, Irrigation & Waterways Directorate, Advance Planning, Project Evaluation & Monitoring Cell, Kolkata. 110pGoogle Scholar
  2. Anandan A, Parameswaran C, Sah RP, Singh ON (2018) Breeding rice varieties for climate change impact. Souvenir. 3rd ARRW international symposium on frontiers of rice research for improving productivity, profitability and climate resilience, Association of Rice Research Workers & ICAR-National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, 6–9 February 2018, pp 56–61Google Scholar
  3. Bailey-Serres J, Fukao T, Ronald P, Ismail A, Heuer S, Mackill D (2010) Submergence tolerant rice: SUB1’s journey from landrace to modern cultivar. Rice 3:138–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Banayo NPM, Mabesa-Telosa RC, Singh S, Kato Y (2019) Improved early season management of sub1 rice varieties enhances post-submergence recovery and yield. Exp Agric 55(1):105–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bandyopadhyay AK (1999) Coastal areas and their management. In: Singh GB, Sharma BR (eds) Fifty years of natural resource management research in India. ICAR-Natural Resource Management Division, New Delhi, pp 635–644Google Scholar
  6. Bandyopadhyay AK, Abrol IP (1986) Management techniques to overcome soil salinity problems in coastal rainfed lowland rice. In: Progress in rainfed lowland rice. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, pp 285–294Google Scholar
  7. Bandyopadhyay AK, Bandyopadhyay BK (1984) Coastal saline soils of West Bengal and its management for rice cultivation. In: Mukerji DK (ed), Rice in West Bengal, vol IV (Golden Jubilee Volume). Directorate of Agriculture (Government of West Bengal), Calcutta, p 119–128Google Scholar
  8. Bandyopadhyay BK, Biswas CR (1982) Efficiency of slow release nitrogen fertilizers and mode of application of urea under deep water rice cultivation in coastal saline soils of West Bengal. Fertil News 27:47–50Google Scholar
  9. Bandyopadhyay BK, Maji B (1995) Nature of acid soils of Sundarbans delta and suitability of classifying them as acid sulphate or potential acid sulphate soils. J Indian Soc Soil Sci 43:251–255Google Scholar
  10. Bandyopadhyay AK, Bhargava GP, Rao KVGK, Sen HS, Sinha TS, Bandyopadhyay BK, Biswas CR, Bal AR, Dutt SK, Mondal RC (1988) Coastal saline soils of India and their management. Bulletin No. 13. ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Regional Research Station, Canning Town, 158pGoogle Scholar
  11. Bandyopadhyay BK, Maji B, Sen HS, Tyagi NK (2003) Coastal soils of West Bengal—their nature, distribution and characteristics. Bulletin No. 1/2003. ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Regional Research Station, Canning Town, 62pGoogle Scholar
  12. Bandyopadhyay BK, Burman D, Mandal S (2011) Improving agricultural productivity in degraded coastal land of India—experiences gained and lessons learned. J Indian Soc Coastal Agric Res 29(1):1–9Google Scholar
  13. Basu P, Mukhopadhyay S, Jayaraman T (2017) Climate change adaptation in flood plain of West Bengal. Climate Change Policy Paper I. Development Research Communication and Services Centre, Kolkata, 20pGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhowmick MK, Dhara MC, Singh S, Bhadra KK (2013) Nitrogen management for quick recovery after submergence and higher productivity of transplanted rice in submergence-prone areas of West Bengal. In: Abstracts, national symposium on “crop pathosystem interactions under aberrant weather and perspectives for crop health management” and twenty-sixth annual general meeting of indian phytopathological society (eastern zone), Central Rainfed Upland Rice Research Station (CRRI, ICAR), Hazaribag, 24–25 October 2013, p 39Google Scholar
  15. Bhowmick MK, Dhara MC, Singh S, Dar MH, Singh US (2014) Improved management options for submergence-tolerant (Sub1) rice genotype in flood-prone rainfed lowlands of West Bengal. Am J Plant Sci 5:14–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Biswas CR, Bandyopadhyay BK, Bandyopadhyay AK (1982) Agronomy of rice cultivation in coastal saline soils (Sundarbans) of West Bengal. In: Mukerji DK (ed) Rice in West Bengal, vol III. Directorate of Agriculture (Government of West Bengal), Calcutta, pp 101–108Google Scholar
  17. Biswas CR, Chattopadhyay GN, Ghosh A, Chakraborti PK (1990) Research management through paddy-cum-fish culture in coastal saline areas. J Indian Soc Coastal Agric Res 8(1):37–41Google Scholar
  18. Bonilla P, Dvorak J, Mackill D, Deal K, Gregorio G (2002) RFLP and SSLP mapping of salinity tolerance genes in chromosome 1 of rice (Oryza sativa L.) using recombinant inbred lines. Philipp Agric Sci 85:68–76Google Scholar
  19. Burman D, Bandyopadhyay BK, Mahanta KK (2010) Management of acid sulphate soil of coastal Sundarbans region: observations under on-farm trial. J Indian Soc Coastal Agric Res 28(1):8–11Google Scholar
  20. Burman D, Bandyopadhyay BK, Mandal S, Mandal UK, Mahanta KK, Sarangi SK, Maji B, Rout S, Bal AR, Gupta SK, Sharma DK (2013) Land shaping—a unique technology for improving productivity of coastal land. CSSRI/Canning Town/Bulletin/2013/02. ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Regional Research Station, Canning Town, 38 pGoogle Scholar
  21. Burman D, Mandal S, Bandopadhyay BK, Maji B, Sharma DK, Mahanta KK, Sarangi SK, Mandal UK, Patra S, De S, Mandal B, Maitra NJ, Ghosal TK, Velmurugan A (2015) Unlocking production potential of degraded coastal land through innovative land management practices: a synthesis. J Soil Salinity Water Qual 7(1):12–18Google Scholar
  22. Burman D, Maji B, Singh S, Mandal S, Sarangi SK, Bandyopadhyay BK, Bal AR, Sharma DK, Krishnamurthy SL, Singh HN, delosReyes AS, Villanueva D, Paris T, Singh US, Haefele SM, Ismail AM (2018) Participatory evaluation guides the development and selection of farmers’ preferred rice varieties for salt- and flood-affected coastal deltas of South and Southeast Asia. Field Crop Res 220:67–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. CGWB (2014) Report on status of ground water quality in coastal aquifers of India. Government of India, Ministry of Water Resources, Central Ground Water Board, Faridabad, 121 pGoogle Scholar
  24. Chakrabarty P (1991) Morphostratigraphy of coastal quaternaries of the West Bengal and Subarnarekha delta, Orissa. Indian J Earth Sci 18:219–225Google Scholar
  25. Chakrabarty P (1995) Subarnarekha delta—A geomorphic appraisal. Indian J Earth Sci 22:125–134Google Scholar
  26. Chaturvedi GS, Ram PC, Singh AK, Ram P, Ingram KT, Singh BB, Singh RK, Singh VP (1996) Carbohydrate status of rainfed lowland rice in relation to submergence, drought and shade tolerance. In: Singh VP, Singh RK, Singh BB, Zeigler RS (eds) Physiology of stress tolerance in plants. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, pp 103–122Google Scholar
  27. Chaudhari SK (2013) Best practices and procedures of saline soil reclamation systems in India. Gurung TR, Azad AK (eds) Best practices and procedures of saline soil reclamation systems in SAARC countries. SAARC Agriculture Centre (SAC), Dhaka, 40–104 pGoogle Scholar
  28. Collard BCY, Septiningsih EM, Das SR, Carandang JJ, Pamplona AM, Sanchez DL, Kato Y, Ye G, Reddy JN, Singh US, Iftekharuddaula KM, Venuprasad R, Vera-Cruz CN, Mackill DJ, Ismail AM (2013) Developing new flood-tolerant varieties at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). SABRAO J Breed Genet 45(1):42–56Google Scholar
  29. CSSRI (2010) CSSRI—at a glance. ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, 33 pGoogle Scholar
  30. Das M (2014) Soil management intervention in cyclone affected coastal areas. In: Kumar A, Brahmanand PS, Nayak AK (eds) Management of cyclone disaster in agriculture sector in coastal areas. ICAR-Directorate of Water Management, Bhubaneswar, pp 57–66Google Scholar
  31. Datta SK (1986) Tolerance of rice varieties for stagnant flooding. In: Progress in rainfed lowland rice. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, pp 201–206Google Scholar
  32. Datta SK, Banerji B (1980) Studies on rice in relation to the low-lying problem areas of West Bengal. In: Mukerji DK (ed) Rice in West Bengal, vol II. Directorate of Agriculture (Government of West Bengal), Calcutta, pp 67–72Google Scholar
  33. Dent D (1986) Acid sulphate soils: a base line for research and development. ILRI Publ. 39. International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, Wageningen, 196 pGoogle Scholar
  34. Dhanushkodi V, Subrahmaniyan K (2012) Soil management to increase rice yield in salt affected coastal soil—a review. Int J Res Chem Environ 2(4):1–5Google Scholar
  35. Ella ES, Ismail AM (2006) Seedling nutrient status before submergence affects survival after submergence in rice. Crop Sci 46:1673–1681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ella ES, Dionisio-Sese ML, Ismail AM (2010) Proper management improves seedling survival and growth during early flooding in contrasting rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes. Crop Sci 50:1997–2008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. GoWB (2015) Statistical handbook West Bengal 2014. Bureau of Applied Economics & Statistics, Department of Statistics & Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal, 262 pGoogle Scholar
  38. Ham LH (2016) Improving rice tolerance of submergence and salinity to cope with climate change in coastal areas of Vietnamese deltas. 12-P04-VIE-Report-Project. Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Genetics Institute, Presentation made at Hanoi, April, 2016. http://dfcentre.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/12-P04-VIE-Report-Project.pdf
  39. Hattori Y, Keisuke N, Motoyuki A (2011) Rice growth adapting to deepwater. Curr Opin Plant Biol 14:100–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hossain M, Abedin MZ (2004) Rice research and development in the flood-prone ecosystem: an overview. In: Bhuiyan SI, Abedin MZ, Singh VP, Hardy B (eds) Rice research and development in the flood-prone ecosystem. Proceedings of the international workshop on flood-prone rice systems, Gazipur, Bangladesh, 9–11 January 2001. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, p 1–12Google Scholar
  41. IMD (2013–2017) Rainfall statistics of India (2012–2016). India Meteorological Department (Ministry of Earth Sciences), Hydromet Division, India Meteorological Department, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  42. Islam MR, Gregorio GB (2013) Progress of salinity tolerant rice variety development in Bangladesh. SABRAO J Breed Genet 45:21–30Google Scholar
  43. Islam MR, Gregorio GB, Salam MA, Collard BCY, Tumimbang-Raiz E, Adorada DA, Mendoza RD, Singh RK, Hassan L (2011) Validation of a major QTL for salinity tolerance on chromosome 1 of rice in three different breeding populations. Agrochimica 55:355–366Google Scholar
  44. Ismail AM (2009) Improving variety and crop management in salt-affected areas. In: Development of technologies to harness the productivity potential of salt-affected areas of the Indo-Gangetic, Mekong, and Nile River basins. CPWF Project Report: CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food. Colombo. http://hdl.handle.net/10568/3785
  45. Ismail AM, Horie M (2017) Genomics, physiology, and molecular breeding approaches for improving salt tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 68:405–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ismail AM, Tuong TP (2009) Brackish water coastal zones of the monsoon tropics: challenges and opportunities. In: Haefele SM, Ismail AM (eds) Natural resource management for poverty reduction and environmental sustainability in fragile rice-based systems, Limited proceedings No. 15. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, pp 113–121Google Scholar
  47. Ismail AM, Wissuwa M, Gregorio GB, Thomson MJ, Singh RK, Heuer S, Mackill DJ (2007) Salinity, submergence, and nutrient deficiency in rice: bases of tolerance and progress through breeding. In: Aggarwal PK, Ladha JK, Singh RK, Devakumar C, Hardy B (eds) Science, technology, and trade for peace and prosperity. Proceedings of the 26th international rice research conference, New Delhi, October 9–12, 2006. International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos; Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi; and National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, New Delhi. Macmillan India Ltd., New Delhi, p 209–221Google Scholar
  48. Ismail AM, Thomson MJ, Vergara GV, Rahman MA, Singh RK, Gregorio GB, Mackill DJ (2010) Designing resilient rice varieties for coastal deltas using modern tools. In: Hoanh CT, Szuster BW, Suan-Pheng K, Ismail AM, Noble AD (eds) Tropical deltas and coastal zones: food production, communities and environment at the land-water Interface. Comprehensive assessment of water management in agriculture series, vol. 9, in association with International Water Management Institute (IWMI), World Fish Center, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)—Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, and CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food (CPWF). CAB International, Wallingford, pp 166–182Google Scholar
  49. Ismail AM, Singh US, Singh S, Dar M, Mackill DJ (2013) The contribution of submergence-tolerant (Sub1) rice varieties to food security in flood-prone areas. Field Crop Res 152:83–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kabir KA, Sundaray JK, Mandal S, Deo DA, Burman D, Sarangi SK, Bhattacharya A, Karim M, Shahrier MB, Castine S, Phillips M (2015) Homestead farming system: comparative characterization and role in resource poor farmers’ livelihood in Bangladesh and West Bengal. In: Humphreys E, Tuong TP, Buisson MC, Pukinskis I, Phillips M (eds) Revitalizing the Ganges coastal zone: turning science into policy and practices. Conference Proceedings: CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food (CPWF), Colombo, pp 251–264Google Scholar
  51. Kato Y, Collard BCY, Septiningsih EM, Ismail AM (2014) Physiological analyses of traits associated with tolerance of long-term partial submergence in rice. AoB Plants 6:plu058.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aobpla/plu058CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Li J, Pu L, Zhu M, Zhang J, Li P, Dai X, Xu Y, Liu L (2014) Evolution of soil properties following reclamation in coastal areas: a review. Geoderma 226–227:130–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mackill DJ, Ismail AM, Singh US, Labios RV, Paris TR (2012) Development and rapid adoption of submergence-tolerant (Sub1) rice varieties. Adv Agron 115:299–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Maheswari M, Sarkar B, Vanaja M, Srinivasa Rao M, Srinivasa Rao CH, Venkateswarlu B, Sikka AK (2015) Climate resilient crop varieties for sustainable food production under aberrant weather conditions. NICRA Bulletin No. 4. Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (ICAR), Hyderabad, p 47Google Scholar
  55. Maji B, Lama TD (2016) Improving productivity of vulnerable coastal soils under changing climate. SATSA Mukhapatra—Annual Technical Issue 20:46–52Google Scholar
  56. Maji B, Mandal LN (1991) Sustainable cropping programme with improved soil, crop and fertilizer management in coastal saline soils of India. J Indian Soc Coastal Agric Res 9(1&2):169–181Google Scholar
  57. Mallik S, Kundu C, Banerji C, Nayak DK, Chatterjee SD, Nanda PK, Ingram KT, Setter TL (1995) Rice germplasm evaluation and improvement for stagnant flooding. In: Ingram KT (ed) Rainfed lowland rice: agricultural research for high-risk environments. International Rice Research Institute, Manila, pp 97–109Google Scholar
  58. Mallikarjuna Swamy BP, Rahman MA, Inabangan-Asilo MA, Amparado A, Manito C, Chadha-Mohanty P, Reinke R, Slamet-Loedin IH (2016) Advances in breeding for high grain zinc in rice. Rice 9:49.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12284-016-0122-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mandal AB, Sen HS, Singh NT (1991) Rice in coastal saline soils of India. J Indian Soc Coastal Agric Res 9(1–2):259–268Google Scholar
  60. Mandal AK, Sharma RC, Singh G, Dagar JC (2010) Computerized database on salt-affected soils in India. Technical Bulletin No. CSSRI/KAMAL/1/l010. ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, 28 pGoogle Scholar
  61. Mirza MMQ (2011) Climate change, flooding in South Asia and implications. Reg Environ Chang 11:S95–S107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mondal M, George P, Humphreys E (2015) Foreword. In: Humphreys E, Tuong TP, Buisson MC, Pukinskis I, Phillips M (eds) Revitalizing the Ganges coastal zone: turning science into policy and practices. Conference proceedings: CGIAR challenge program on water and food (CPWF), Colombo, 600 pGoogle Scholar
  63. Moormann FR, van Breemen N (1978) Rice: soil, water, land. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, 185 pGoogle Scholar
  64. Morgan JP, Mcintire WG (1959) Quaternary geology of Bengal basin, East Pakistan and India. Bull of the Geol Soc America 70:319–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Muthuraju M, Ravi MV, Siddaramappa R (2005) Effect of application of enriched pressmud on changes in chemical properties of an Alfisol. Mysore Agric Sci 39(2):207–213Google Scholar
  66. NRAA (2012) Post monsoon/flood compensatory agriculture production plan 2012. Government of India, Planning Commission, National Rainfed Area Authority, New Delhi, 40 pGoogle Scholar
  67. Pal D, Lama TD (2016) Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research—in a nutshell. 11th national symposium on “innovations in coastal agriculture—current status and potential under changing environment”, Souvenir, 14–17 January 2016 & Abstracts, Indian Society of Coastal Agricultural Research, ICAR-CSSRI Regional Research Station, Canning Town, and ICAR-Indian Institute of Water Management, Bhubaneswar, pp 18–20Google Scholar
  68. Pani DR, Sarangi SK, Subudhi HN, Misra RC, Bhandari DC (2012) Exploration, evaluation and conservation of salt tolerant rice genetic resources from Sundarbans region of West Bengal. J Indian Soc Coastal Agric Res 30(1):45–53Google Scholar
  69. Parvin MS (2005) Factors affecting submergence tolerance of rice seedlings. MS thesis, N.D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Faizabad, 113 pGoogle Scholar
  70. Pathak H, Aggarwal PK, Singh SD (eds) (2012) Climate change impact, adaptation and mitigation in agriculture: methodology for assessment and applications. ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, pp xix + 302Google Scholar
  71. Patra SR (2019) Climate-smart agriculture towards improving livelihood security and farmers’ income in West Bengal. Souvenir. National seminar on “sustainable resource management for enhancing farm income, nutritional security and livelihood improvement”, Department of Agronomy, Palli Siksha Bhavana (Institute of Agriculture), Visva-Bharati, Sriniketan, Birbhum, 1–3 February 2019, pp 37–38Google Scholar
  72. Patra SR, Bhowmick MK (2020) System of assured rice production in Kharif: a resource-conserving and climate-resilient methodology for higher productivity and profitability. In: Rakshit A, Singh HB, Singh AK, Singh US, Fraceto L (eds) New frontiers in stress management for durable agriculture. Springer, Singapore. (in press)Google Scholar
  73. Patra SR, Ray M, Das S (2013) Influence of seedling management, age of seedling and nutrient levels on yield of wet season rice. Extended summaries. ARRW golden jubilee international symposium on “sustainable rice production and livelihood security: challenges and opportunities”, Central Rice Research Institute (ICAR), Cuttack, 2–5 March 2013, pp 139–140Google Scholar
  74. Patra SR, Ray M, Das S, Halder P, Hembram SK, Majumder C (2014) Seedling density, seedling age and nutrient management for wet season rice production. Oryza 51(3):213–218Google Scholar
  75. Patra SR, Das S, Halder P (2015) System of assured rice production: towards combating climate change and restoring soil health. SATSA Mukhapatra—Annual Technical Issue 19:103–112Google Scholar
  76. Pearson GA, Ayres AD (1960) Rice as a crop for salt affected soils in process of reclamation. USDA Prod Res Rep:43, 13 pGoogle Scholar
  77. Prasad YG, Maheswari M, Dixit S, Srinivasa Rao C, Sikka AK, Venkateswarlu B, Sudhakar N, Prabhu Kumar S, Singh AK, Gogoi AK, Singh AK, Singh YV, Mishra A (2014) Smart practices and technologies for climate resilient agriculture. National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture, ICAR-Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (CRIDA), Hyderabad, 76 pGoogle Scholar
  78. Radanielson AM, Gaydon DS, Khan MMR, Chaki AK, Rahman MA, Angeles O, Li T, Ismail A (2018) Varietal improvement options for higher rice productivity in salt affected areas using crop modeling. Field Crop Res 229:27–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ram PC, Mazid MA, Ismail AM, Singh PN, Singh VN, Haque MA, Singh U, Ella ES, Singh BB (2009) Crop and resource management in flood-prone areas: farmers’ strategies and research development. In: Haefele SM, Ismail AM (eds) Natural resource management for poverty reduction and environmental sustainability in fragile rice-based systems, Limited Proceedings No. 15. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, pp 82–94Google Scholar
  80. Rao KVGK (1982) Surface drainage requirement of lowland rice in Sundarbans. In: Mukerji DK (ed) Rice in West Bengal, vol III. Directorate of Agriculture (Government of West Bengal), Calcutta, pp 95–100Google Scholar
  81. Ravindra Babu V, Padmavathi C, Neeraja CN, Krishnaveni D, Subba Rao LV, Raghuveer Rao P, Prasad GSV, Katti G, Ram T, Subrahmanyam D, Kumar RM, Hari Prasad AS, Surekha K, Prasad MS, Chaitanya U (2016) 50 years of AICRIP—way forward. Technical Bulletin No. 92/2016. ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research, Hyderabad, 292 pGoogle Scholar
  82. Ray P, Meena BL, Nath CP (2014) Management of coastal soils for improving soil quality and productivity. Popular Kheti 2(1):95–99Google Scholar
  83. Saha S, Singh DP, Sinhababu DP, Mahata KR, Behera KS, Pandy MP (2008) Improved rice based production systems for higher and sustainable yield in eastern coastal plain in India. J Indian Soc Coastal Agric Res 26(2):74–79Google Scholar
  84. Saha S, Singh DP, Mahata KR (2009) Coastal saline ecosystems in India. In: Haefele SM, Ismail AM (eds) Natural resource management for poverty reduction and environmental sustainability in fragile rice-based systems, Limited Proceedings No. 15. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, pp 146–157Google Scholar
  85. Sarangi SK, Maji B, Singh S, Sharma DK, Burman D, Mandal S, Ismail AM, Haefele SM (2014) Crop establishment and nutrient management for dry season (boro) rice in coastal areas. Agron J 106:2013–2023.  https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj14.0182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sarangi SK, Maji B, Singh S, Burman D, Mandal S, Sharma DK, Singh US, Ismail AM, Haefele SM (2015a) Improved nursery management further enhances the productivity of stress-tolerant rice varieties in coastal rainfed lowlands. Field Crop Res 174:61–70.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2015.01.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sarangi SK, Burman D, Mandal S, Maji B, Humphreys E, Tuong TP, Bandyopadhyay BK, Sharma DK (2015b) Promising rice genotypes for the wet and dry seasons in coastal West Bengal. In: Humphreys E, Tuong TP, Buisson MC, Pukinskis I, Phillips M (eds), Revitalizing the Ganges coastal zone: turning science into policy and practices. Conference proceedings: CGIAR challenge program on water and food (CPWF), Colombo, pp 304–319Google Scholar
  88. Sarangi SK, Maji B, Singh S, Sharma DK, Burman D, Mandal S, Singh US, Ismail AM, Haefele SM (2016) Using improved variety and management enhances rice productivity in stagnant flood-affected coastal zones. Field Crop Res 190:70–81.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2015.10.024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sarkar RK, Reddy JN, Das KK, Ram PC, Singh PN, Mazid MA, Sommut W, Pane H, Sharma SG, Ismail AM (2009) Biophysical constraints in flood-prone ecosystems: impacts and prospects for enhancing and sustaining productivity. In: Haefele SM, Ismail AM (eds) Natural resource management for poverty reduction and environmental sustainability in fragile rice-based systems, Limited proceedings No. 15. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, pp 68–81Google Scholar
  90. Schiermeier Q (2011) Increased flood risk linked to global warming. Nature 470:316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sen HS (1998) Management of coastal saline soils. In: Tyagi NK, Minhas PS (eds) Agricultural salinity management in India. ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, Yugantar Prakashan Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, p 351–373Google Scholar
  92. Sen HS, Bandyopadhyay BK (1987) Volatilization loss of nitrogen from submerged saline soil. Soil Sci 143:34–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sharma RC (1998) Nature, extent and classification. In: Tyagi NT, Minhas PS (eds) Agricultural salinity management in India. ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, pp 21–40Google Scholar
  94. Sheinkman M, McKinley J, Adaro C, Bandyopadhyay S, Panda A (2015) Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) technologies in Asia. CCAFS workshop report: CGIAR research program on climate change, agriculture and food security (CCAFS), Copenhagen, June 2–4, 2015, 46 ppGoogle Scholar
  95. Singh PN, Ram PC, Singh A, Singh BB (2005) Effect of seedling age on submergence tolerance of rainfed lowland rice. Ann Plant Physiol 19:22–26Google Scholar
  96. Singh RK, Redona E, Gregorio GB, Salam MA, Islam MR, Singh DP, Sen P, Saha S, Mahata KR, Sharma SG, Pandey MP, Sajise AG, Mendoza RD, Toledo MC, Dante A, Ismail AM, Paris TR, Haefele SM, Thomson DK, Zolvinski S, Singh YP, Nayak AK, Singh RB, Mishra VK, Sharma DK, Gautam RK, Ram PC, Singh PN, Verma OP, Singh A, Lang NT (2010a) The right rice in the right place: systematic exchange and farmer-based evaluation of rice germplasm for salt affected areas. In: Hoanh CT, Szuster BW, Suan-Pheng K, Ismail AM, Noble AD (eds) Tropical deltas and coastal zones: food production, communities and environment at the land-water interface. Comprehensive assessment of water management in agriculture series, vol 9, in association with International Water Management Institute (IWMI), World Fish Center, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)—Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, and CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food (CPWF). CAB International, Wallingford, pp 155–165Google Scholar
  97. Singh U, Wilkens P, Jahan I, Sanabria J, Kovach S (2010b) Enhanced efficiency fertilizers, 2010. 19th world congress of soil science. Soil solutions for a changing world, Brisbane. http://www.iuss.org/19th%20WCSS/Symposium/pdf/1506.pdf
  98. Singh S, Mackill DJ, Ismail AM (2011) Tolerance of longer-term partial stagnant flooding is independent of the SUB1 locus in rice. Field Crop Res 121:311–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Singh US, Dar MH, Singh S, Zaidi NW, Bari MA, Mackill DJ, Collard BCY, Singh VN, Reddy JN, Singh RK, Ismail AM (2013) Field performance, dissemination, tracking and impact of submergence tolerant (SUB1) rice varieties in South Asia. SABRAO J Breed Genet 45(1):112–131Google Scholar
  100. Singh S, Mackill DJ, Ismail AM (2014a) Physiological basis of tolerance to complete submergence in rice involves genetic factors in addition to the SUB1 gene. AOB Plants 6:plu060.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aobpla/plu060CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. Singh YP, Nayak AK, Sharma DK, Gautam RK, Singh RK, Singh R, Mishra VK, Paris T, Ismail AM (2014b) Farmers’ participatory varietal selection: a sustainable crop improvement approach for the 21st century. Agroecol Sustain Food Syst 38:427–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Singh UP, Singh S, Singh MK, Padmavathi J, Ravi Kumar HS, Singh L, Singh US, Stephan M (2014c) Direct seeding and post-flood nutrient application enhance survival, recovery and yield of flood-tolerant (Sub1) rice. IRC14-0328. Poster presented at fourth international rice conference, Bangkok, Thailand, October 27–November 01, 2014Google Scholar
  103. Singh YP, Mishra VK, Singh S, Sharma DK, Singh D, Singh US, Singh RK, Haefele SM, Ismail AM (2016) Productivity of sodic soils can be enhanced through the use of salt tolerant rice varieties and proper agronomic practices. Field Crop Res 190:82–90.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2016.02.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Singh S, Srivastava AK, Dar MH, Zaidi NW, Singh US (2017) Climate resilient agronomy for sustainable rice production in rainfed environment of Eastern India. SATSA Mukhapatra—Annual Technical Issue 21:1–20Google Scholar
  105. Sinha TS, Bandyopadhyay AK (1984) Rice in coastal saline land of West Bengal, India. Workshop on research priorities in tidal swamp rice, Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, June 22–25, 1981. International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, pp 115–118Google Scholar
  106. Sinha TS, Bandyopadhyay AK, Yadav JSP (1982) Problems and prospects of rice cultivation in coastal saline soils of West Bengal. In: Mukerji DK (ed) Rice in West Bengal, vol III. Directorate of Agriculture (Government of West Bengal), Calcutta, pp 11–16Google Scholar
  107. SOE (2017) State of environment (SOE) report, West Bengal 2016. In: Rudra K, Mukherjee S, Mukhopadhyay UK, Gupta D (eds) West Bengal Pollution Control Board. Paribesh Bhawan, Kolkata, 348 pGoogle Scholar
  108. Srivastava AK, Singh S, Dar MH, Singh US (2016) Stress-tolerant rice varieties and conforming management practices for intensification of rainfed ecosystem in India. SATSA Mukhapatra—Annual Technical Issue 20:1–14Google Scholar
  109. Szuster BW, Hoanh CT, Kam SP, Ismail AM, Noble AD, Borger M (2010) Policy, planning and management at the land-water interface. In: Hoanh CT, Szuster BW, Kam SP, Ismail AM, Noble AD (eds) Tropical deltas and coastal zones: food production, communities and environment at the land-water interface. Comprehensive assessment of water management in agriculture series, vol 9, in association with International Water Management Institute (IWMI), World Fish Center, International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)—Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, and CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food (CPWF). CAB International, Wallingford, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  110. Thomson MJ, de Ocampo M, Egdane J, Akhlasur Rahman M, Godwin Sajise A, Adorada DL, Tumimbang-Raiz E, Blumwald E, Seraj ZI, Singh RK, Gregorio GB, Ismail AM (2010) Characterizing the Saltol quantitative trait locus for salinity tolerance in rice. Rice 3:148–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Velayutham M, Mandai DK, Mandal C, Sehgal J (1999) Agro-ecological sub-regions of India for planning and development. NBSS publication No. 35, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Nagpur, 372 pGoogle Scholar
  112. WBAPCC (2012) West Bengal state action plan on climate change. Government of West Bengal, Department of Environment, Kolkata, 333 pGoogle Scholar
  113. WBSDMP (2016) State disaster management plan 2015-16, Part I-III, West Bengal. Department of Disaster Management, Government of West Bengal, Kolkata, 487 pGoogle Scholar
  114. WMRS (2013) Annual report (2012–13). Water Management Research Station (Government of West Bengal), Ranaghat, pp 21–29Google Scholar
  115. WMRS (2014) Annual report (2013–14). Water management Research Station (Government of West Bengal), Ranaghat, pp 33–35Google Scholar
  116. Xu K, Mackill DJ (1996) A major locus for submergence tolerance mapped on rice chromosome 9. Mol Breed 2:219–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Xu K, Xu X, Fukao T, Canalas P, Maghirang-Rodriguez R, Heuer S, Ismail AM, Bailey-Serres J, Roland PC, Mackill DJ (2006) Sub1A is an ethylene responsive-factor-like gene that confers submergence tolerance in rice. Nature 442:705–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Yadav JSP, Bandyopadhyay AK, Rao KVGK, Sinha TS, Biswas CR (1979) Coastal saline soils of India. Bulletin No. 5. ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Karnal, 34 pGoogle Scholar
  119. Yadav JSP, Bandyopadhyay AK, Rao KVGK, Sinha TS, Biswas CR, Bandyopadhyay BK, Dutt SK (1981) Management of coastal saline soils of Sundarbans. Bulletin No. 7. ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Regional Research Station, Canning Town, 32 pGoogle Scholar
  120. Yadav JSP, Bandyopadhyay AK, Bandyopadhyay BK (1983) The extent of coastal saline soils in India. J Indian Soc Coast Agric Res 1:1–6Google Scholar
  121. Yadav M, Paul A, Bhowmick K, Adhikari B, Bhowmick MK, Santra CK (2014) Indigenous aromatic rice: quality seed production and area expansion in West Bengal. SATSA Mukhapatra—Annual Technical Issue 18:72–93Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Directorate of Agriculture (Government of West Bengal)KolkataIndia
  2. 2.International Rice Research Institute-South Asia Regional Centre, NSRTC Campus, Collectory Farm, Industrial EstateVaranasiIndia
  3. 3.Rice Research Station (Government of West Bengal)Chinsurah (R.S.)India
  4. 4.Field Crop Research Station (Government of West Bengal)BurdwanIndia
  5. 5.Department of Agriculture (Government of West Bengal)KolkataIndia
  6. 6.International Rice Research InstituteLos BañosPhilippines

Personalised recommendations