Sediment Monitoring in Sakiyama and Amitori Bays
This chapter focuses on a technique for directly measuring suspended sediment or directly collecting coastal sediment for analysis. Simple and low-cost techniques employing sediment traps using a polyvinyl chloride pipe to capture suspended sediment and a handheld analyzer for X-ray fluorescent analysis and a digital scanner for image analysis were employed for sediment measurement and analysis. In laboratory experiments, the sediment catch performance of a cylindrical sediment trap was evaluated according to differences in the intake and outlet sizes. The characteristics of the measurement principle of the X-ray fluorescence analysis were described. Furthermore, a technique for digital image analysis that can estimate sediment diameter was constructed. In addition, color measurements using the CIE L* a* b* color space system ascertained sediment color characteristics. Next, these measurement and analysis techniques were applied to sediment monitoring in the Sakiyama and Amitori bays. Fine sediment was captured in the sediment traps. The element content of the coastal sediment from multiple points within the bays and their spatial distributions obtained through X-ray fluorescence analysis were ascertained. The color, diameter, and chemical composition of the sediments were classified using clustering analysis, and the distribution of the cluster within the bays matched the topographical features.
KeywordsSediment transport Sediment characteristics Cylindrical sediment trap X-ray fluorescence analysis Image analysis
We would like to thank Mayumi Suzuki and Seishichi Miyauchi, graduates of Tokai University’s School of Marine Science and Technology; and Takumi Shibayama, a graduate of University of Tsukuba, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, for helping to collect survey data. We also received advice from Professor Shigeru Kato of Toyohashi University of Technology concerning X-ray fluorescence and image analyses. For analytical work, we received the cooperation of Yusuke Aoki and Kazuki Furukawa, both graduates of Toyohashi University of Technology.
- Black KS, Athey S, Wilson P, Evans D (2007) The use of particle tracking in sediment transport studies: a review. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 274:73–91Google Scholar
- Bloesch J, Burns NM (1980) A critical review of sedimentation trap technique. Schweiz Z Hydrol 42(1):15–55Google Scholar
- Gutierres F, Gomes P, Rocha J and Teodoro AC (2018) Spatially explicit models in local dynamics analysis: the potential natural vegetation (PNV) as a tool for beach and coastal management. In: Botero C, Cervantes O, Finkl C (eds) Beach management tools—concepts, methodologies and case studies. Coastal Research Library, vol 24. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
- MacIntyre IG, Glynn PW, Cortés J (1992) Holocene reef history in the eastern Pacific: mainland Costa Rica, Caño Island, Cocos Island, and Galápagos Islands. In: Proceedings 7th international coral reef symposium (2):1174–1184Google Scholar
- Mudroch A, Azcue JM (1995) Manual of aquatic sediment sampling. CRC Press, Florida, p 219Google Scholar
- Murakami T, Ukai A, Kohno H, Mizutani A, Shimokawa S, Nakase K, Yasuda T (2012) Relationships between distributions of coral and physical environments in Amitori Bay, Iriomote island, Japan. Ann J Civil Eng Ocean B3(68):1133–1138 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
- Nederbragt AJ, Dunbar RB, Osborn AT, Palmer A, Thurow JW and Wagner T (2006) Sediment color analysis from digital images and correlation with sediment composition. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 267: 113–128Google Scholar
- Niu X, Ueyama S, Sato S, Tajima Y, Liu H (2009) Sediment movement under combined waves, tide and river discharge in a river mouth. Proc Coastal Dynamics 2009: Paper No. 67 (1–13)Google Scholar
- Omija T (2004) Terrestrial inflow of soils and nutrients. Coral Reefs Jpn 47:64–68Google Scholar
- Rowe GT, Gardner WD (1979) Sedimentation rates in the slope water of the northwest Atlantic Ocean measured directly with sediment traps. J Marine Res 37(3):581–600Google Scholar
- Shibayama T, Shimokawa S, Kohno H, Ukai A, Mizutani A, Nakase K, Murakami T (2016) Property of soil particles related to reef-building coral distribution in Amitori and Sakiyama bays, Iriomote Island. In: Proceedings of Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2016: ACG15-P06Google Scholar
- Shimokawa S, Kohno H, Murakami T, Miyauchi S, Suzuki M, Mizutani A (2016) Relation between coral distributions and Physical variables in Sakiyama Bay, Iriomote Island, Japan. Ann J Civil Eng Ocean B2(72):1435–1440 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar