Sediment Monitoring in Sakiyama and Amitori Bays

  • Takumi OkabeEmail author
  • Tomokazu Murakami
  • Hiroyoshi Kohno
  • Akira Mizutani
  • Shinya Shimokawa
Part of the Springer Oceanography book series (SPRINGEROCEAN)


This chapter focuses on a technique for directly measuring suspended sediment or directly collecting coastal sediment for analysis. Simple and low-cost techniques employing sediment traps using a polyvinyl chloride pipe to capture suspended sediment and a handheld analyzer for X-ray fluorescent analysis and a digital scanner for image analysis were employed for sediment measurement and analysis. In laboratory experiments, the sediment catch performance of a cylindrical sediment trap was evaluated according to differences in the intake and outlet sizes. The characteristics of the measurement principle of the X-ray fluorescence analysis were described. Furthermore, a technique for digital image analysis that can estimate sediment diameter was constructed. In addition, color measurements using the CIE L* a* b* color space system ascertained sediment color characteristics. Next, these measurement and analysis techniques were applied to sediment monitoring in the Sakiyama and Amitori bays. Fine sediment was captured in the sediment traps. The element content of the coastal sediment from multiple points within the bays and their spatial distributions obtained through X-ray fluorescence analysis were ascertained. The color, diameter, and chemical composition of the sediments were classified using clustering analysis, and the distribution of the cluster within the bays matched the topographical features.


Sediment transport Sediment characteristics Cylindrical sediment trap X-ray fluorescence analysis Image analysis 



We would like to thank Mayumi Suzuki and Seishichi Miyauchi, graduates of Tokai University’s School of Marine Science and Technology; and Takumi Shibayama, a graduate of University of Tsukuba, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, for helping to collect survey data. We also received advice from Professor Shigeru Kato of Toyohashi University of Technology concerning X-ray fluorescence and image analyses. For analytical work, we received the cooperation of Yusuke Aoki and Kazuki Furukawa, both graduates of Toyohashi University of Technology.


  1. Andréfouët S, Riegl B (2004) Remote sensing: a key tool for interdisciplinary assessment of coral reef processes. Coral Reefs 23:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bauer BO, Namikas SL (1998) Design and field test of a continuously weighing, tipping—bucket assembly for aeolian sand traps. Earth Surf Proc Land 23(13):1171–1183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bessell-Browne P, Negri AP, Fisher R, Clode PL, Duchworth A, Jones R (2017) Impacts of turbidity on corals: the relative importance of light limitation and suspended sediments. Mar Pollut Bull 117(1–2):161–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Black KS, Athey S, Wilson P, Evans D (2007) The use of particle tracking in sediment transport studies: a review. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 274:73–91Google Scholar
  5. Bloesch J, Burns NM (1980) A critical review of sedimentation trap technique. Schweiz Z Hydrol 42(1):15–55Google Scholar
  6. Buscombe D, Masselink G (2009) Grain-size information from the statistical properties of digital images of sediment. Sedimentology 56(2):421–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Caridi F, D’Agostino M, Marguccio S, Belvedere A, Belmusto G, Marcianò G, Sabatino G, Mottese A (2016) Radioactivity, granulometric and elemental analysis of river sediments samples from the coast of Calabria, south of Italy. The Eur Phys J Plus 131(5):136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chauvaud S, Bouchon C, Maniere R (1998) Remote sensing techniques adapted to high resolution mapping of tropical coastal marine ecosystems (coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangrove). Int J of Remote Sens 19(18):3625–3639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Costa BM, Battista TA, Pittman SJ (2009) Comparative evaluation of airborne LiDAR and ship-based multibeam SoNAR bathymetry and intensity for mapping coral reef ecosystems. Remote Sens Environ 113(5):1082–1100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Danielsson Å, Cato I, Carman R, Rahm L (1999) Spatial clustering of metals in the sediments of the Skagerrak/Kattegat. Appl Geochem 14(6):689–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Entsch B, Boto KG, Sim RG, Wellington JT (1983) Phosphorus and nitrogen in coral reef sediments. Limnol Oceanogr 28(3):465–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Erftemeijer PL, Riegl B, Hoeksema BW, Todd PA (2012) Environmental impacts of dredging and other sediment disturbances on corals: a review. Mar Pollut Bull 64(9):1737–1765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Francus P (1998) An image-analysis technique to measure grain-size variation in thin sections of soft clastic sediments. Sed Geol 121(3–4):289–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Frontalini F, Coccioni R (2008) Benthic foraminifera for heavy metal pollution monitoring: a case study from the central Adriatic Sea coast of Italy. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 76(2):404–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Garcia C, Laronne JB, Sala M (2000) Continuous monitoring of bedload flux in a mountain gravel-bed river. Geomorphology 34(1–2):23–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Griffin SP, Garcia RP, Weil E (2003) Bioerosion in coral reef communities in southwest Puerto Rico by the sea urchin Echinometra viridis. Mar Biol 143(1):79–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gust G, Bowles W, Giordano S, Hüttel M (1996) Particle accumulation in a cylindrical sediment trap under laminar and turbulent steady flow: an experimental approach. Aquat Sci 58(4):297–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gutierres F, Gomes P, Rocha J and Teodoro AC (2018) Spatially explicit models in local dynamics analysis: the potential natural vegetation (PNV) as a tool for beach and coastal management. In: Botero C, Cervantes O, Finkl C (eds) Beach management tools—concepts, methodologies and case studies. Coastal Research Library, vol 24. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  19. Jackson DWT (1996) A new, instantaneous aeolian sand trap design for field use. Sedimentology 43(5):791–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jordan LKB, Banks KW, Fisher LE, Walker BK, Gilliam DS (2010) Elevated sedimentation on coral reefs adjacent to a beach nourishment project. Mar Pollut Bull 60(2):261–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. MacIntyre IG, Glynn PW, Cortés J (1992) Holocene reef history in the eastern Pacific: mainland Costa Rica, Caño Island, Cocos Island, and Galápagos Islands. In: Proceedings 7th international coral reef symposium (2):1174–1184Google Scholar
  22. Martin MA, Taguas FJ (1998) Fractal modelling, characterization and simulation of particle-size distributions in soil. Proc R Soc Lond A: Math, Phys Eng Sci 454(1973):1457–1468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mudroch A, Azcue JM (1995) Manual of aquatic sediment sampling. CRC Press, Florida, p 219Google Scholar
  24. Murakami T, Ukai A, Kohno H, Mizutani A, Shimokawa S, Nakase K, Yasuda T (2012) Relationships between distributions of coral and physical environments in Amitori Bay, Iriomote island, Japan. Ann J Civil Eng Ocean B3(68):1133–1138 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  25. Nederbragt AJ, Dunbar RB, Osborn AT, Palmer A, Thurow JW and Wagner T (2006) Sediment color analysis from digital images and correlation with sediment composition. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 267: 113–128Google Scholar
  26. Niu X, Ueyama S, Sato S, Tajima Y, Liu H (2009) Sediment movement under combined waves, tide and river discharge in a river mouth. Proc Coastal Dynamics 2009: Paper No. 67 (1–13)Google Scholar
  27. Okabe T, Aoki Y, Kato S, Murakami T, Shimokawa S, Kono H (2016) Experimental evaluation and field applications of a cylindrical sediment trap for suspended sediment. J Jpn Soc Civil Eng B3 72(2): I_922–I_927 (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Okabe T, Murakami T, Kono H, Mizutani A, Shimokawa S (2017) Spatial characterization of a coastal sediment in Sakiyama and Amitori bays by X-ray fluorescence and digital image analysis. J Jpn Soc Civil Eng B3 73(2):I_1036–I_1041 (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Okada T, Thi MTN and Furukawa K (2009) Estimation of the Spatial Distribution of Sediment Using Chemical Composition and Particle-size Distribution. J Japan Soc Civil Eng B2 65(1): 976–980 (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Omija T (2004) Terrestrial inflow of soils and nutrients. Coral Reefs Jpn 47:64–68Google Scholar
  31. Phillips JM, Russell MA, Walling DE (2000) Time-integrated sampling of fluvial suspended sediment: a simple methodology for small catchments. Hydrol Process 14(14):2589–2602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rahman MA, Ishiga H (2012) Trace metal concentrations in tidal flat coastal sediments, Yamaguchi Prefecture, southwest Japan. Environ Monit Assess 184(9):5755–5771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Roberts JM, Brown CJ, Long D, Bates CR (2005) Acoustic mapping using a multibeam echosounder reveals cold-water coral reefs and surrounding habitats. Coral Reefs 24(4):654–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rowe GT, Gardner WD (1979) Sedimentation rates in the slope water of the northwest Atlantic Ocean measured directly with sediment traps. J Marine Res 37(3):581–600Google Scholar
  35. Rubin DM (2004) A simple autocorrelation algorithm for determining grain size from digital images of sediment. J Sediment Res 74(1):160–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shibayama T, Shimokawa S, Kohno H, Ukai A, Mizutani A, Nakase K, Murakami T (2016) Property of soil particles related to reef-building coral distribution in Amitori and Sakiyama bays, Iriomote Island. In: Proceedings of Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2016: ACG15-P06Google Scholar
  37. Shimokawa S, Kohno H, Murakami T, Miyauchi S, Suzuki M, Mizutani A (2016) Relation between coral distributions and Physical variables in Sakiyama Bay, Iriomote Island, Japan. Ann J Civil Eng Ocean B2(72):1435–1440 (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  38. Thompson J, Sattar AM, Gharabaghi B, Warner RC (2016) Event-based total suspended sediment particle size distribution model. J Hydrol 536:236–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takumi Okabe
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tomokazu Murakami
    • 2
  • Hiroyoshi Kohno
    • 3
  • Akira Mizutani
    • 3
  • Shinya Shimokawa
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Architecture and Civil EngineeringToyohashi University of TechnologyToyohashiJapan
  2. 2.Storm, Flood and Landslide Research Division, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster ResilienceTsukubaJapan
  3. 3.Okinawa Regional Research CenterTokai UniversityYaeyamaJapan

Personalised recommendations