Circular Economy in India

  • Sadhan Kumar GhoshEmail author


India is a fastest growing economy with unity in many diversities comprising of 28 states and nine union territories. The population in India as estimated in 2019 is at 1.37 billion based on the most recent UN data and 2011 census data. India is the second-most populous country. It is the seventh-largest country in the world, having total area of 3,287,263 km2 (1,269,219 sq mi) measuring 3214 km (1997 mi) from north to south and 2933 km (1822 mi) from east to west. A land frontier of 15,200 km (9445 mi) and a coastline of 7,516.6 km (4671 mi) exist in India (Annual Report 2016–17).



All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with ethical standards of the institutional research committee and informed consent was obtained from all individual participants in the study carried out by International Society of Waste Management, Air and Water (ISWMAW). Authors appreciate International Society of Waste Management, Air and Water Authority for generous support towards the successful completion of the study.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Department of Mechanical EngineeringJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia
  2. 2.International Society of Waste Management, Air and Water (ISWMAW)KolkataIndia

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