Status and Development of the Circular Economy in Germany

  • Michael NellesEmail author
  • Abdallah Nassour
  • Gert Morscheck


What is circular economy? Wikipedia says: circular economy is a regenerative system in which resource input and waste, emission and energy leakage are minimised by slowing, closing and narrowing energy and material loops; this can be achieved through long-lasting design, maintenance, repair, reuse, remanufacturing, refurbishing, recycling and upcycling.


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  4. European Commission (EC). (2018). Directive (Eu) 2018/851 of the European Parliament and of the Council.
  5. European Commission (EC). (2019). The European Commission Circular economy package.
  6. Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft Köln (Cologne Institute for Economic Research). (2010). Study conducted on behalf of BDE [Federation of the German Waste, Water and Raw Materials Management Industry].Google Scholar
  7. Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ).
  8. Oberösterreichische Zukunftsakademie (Upper Austrian Future Academy). (2013). “Endlichkeit der Rohstoffe” (“Finiteness of fossil raw materials”).Google Scholar
  9. Statistisches Bundesamt (Destatis), Abfallwirtschaft 2017., 2019.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Nelles
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Abdallah Nassour
    • 1
  • Gert Morscheck
    • 1
  1. 1.Waste Management and Material FlowRostock UniversityRostockGermany
  2. 2.German Biomass Research Centre gGmbH (DBFZ)LeipzigGermany

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