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Status and Development of the Circular Economy in Germany

  • Michael NellesEmail author
  • Abdallah Nassour
  • Gert Morscheck
Chapter

Abstract

What is circular economy? Wikipedia says: circular economy is a regenerative system in which resource input and waste, emission and energy leakage are minimised by slowing, closing and narrowing energy and material loops; this can be achieved through long-lasting design, maintenance, repair, reuse, remanufacturing, refurbishing, recycling and upcycling.

References

  1. Blue Angel—The German Ecolabel. https://www.blauer-engel.de/en.
  2. BMWI (German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology). (2016). Sector Focus Mining and Raw Materials.Google Scholar
  3. Circular Economy System Diagram. (2018). The Ellen MacArthur Foundation. https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy/interactive-diagram.
  4. European Commission (EC). (2018). Directive (Eu) 2018/851 of the European Parliament and of the Council. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32018L0851&from=EN.
  5. European Commission (EC). (2019). The European Commission Circular economy package. https://ec.europa.eu/environment/circular-economy/.
  6. Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft Köln (Cologne Institute for Economic Research). (2010). Study conducted on behalf of BDE [Federation of the German Waste, Water and Raw Materials Management Industry].Google Scholar
  7. Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). https://www.bmz.de/de/themen/abfall/index.html.
  8. Oberösterreichische Zukunftsakademie (Upper Austrian Future Academy). (2013). “Endlichkeit der Rohstoffe” (“Finiteness of fossil raw materials”).Google Scholar
  9. Statistisches Bundesamt (Destatis), Abfallwirtschaft 2017. http://www.destatis.de/, 2019.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Nelles
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Abdallah Nassour
    • 1
  • Gert Morscheck
    • 1
  1. 1.Waste Management and Material FlowRostock UniversityRostockGermany
  2. 2.German Biomass Research Centre gGmbH (DBFZ)LeipzigGermany

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