Advertisement

Development of Ports of Four Stroke Diesel Engines

  • Nagaraj S. NayakEmail author
  • P. A. Lakshminarayanan
Chapter
Part of the Energy, Environment, and Sustainability book series (ENENSU)

Abstract

Fresh air is breathed in and products of combustion are exhaled by the inlet and exhaust ports. The efficiency of air flow is given by the flow coefficient. The flow is turbulent for most of the period and avoiding recirculation zones improves the flow. The energy for the flow is imparted by the piston during the intake stroke and only partly in the exhaust stroke as blowdown is a significant contributor during exhaust process. The energy during intake is partitioned between components contributing to flow and to swirl, which is important to support combustion in a direct injection engine. Of all the types of intake ports producing swirl in the cylinder, helical port is amenable to theoretical treatment with less empiricism; also, a helical port is stable in production and highly efficient. Helical port design considers free vortex with a correction for friction at cylinder liner surfaces. The optimum helical port is one which minimises the variation of exit velocity about the periphery of the valve seat. The exhaust port is designed to accelerate the flow at zones where there is a tendency to separate and then, a diffuser is designed to gain pressure. The definitions for the flow coefficient and swirl number vary from institution to institution. The definitions followed in this chapter were pioneered by AVL; these are widely used in many countries as de facto standard. The engine swirl can be reproduced at steady state rig for benchmarking or tuning the ports designed based on theory.

References

  1. British Standard (1983) Measurement of fluid flow in closed conduits. BS-1042Google Scholar
  2. Dani AD, Nagpurkar UP, Lakshminarayanan PA (1990) Universal mixing correlations for the performance and emission of open chamber diesel combustion supported by air swirl. No. 900446. SAE Technical PaperGoogle Scholar
  3. Dent JC, Derham JA (1974) Air motion in a four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. Proc Inst Mech Eng 188(1):269–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Scheiterlein (2013) Der Aufbau der raschlaufenden Verbrennungskraftmaschine, vol 11. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  5. Thien GE (1965) Development work on intake and exhaust ports of four stroke diesel engines. Österreichische Ingenieur-Zeitschrift 9Google Scholar
  6. Tippelmann G (1977) A new method of investigation of swirl ports. SAE Trans 1745–1757Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Caledonian College of EngineeringGlasgow Caledonian UniversitySeebOman
  2. 2.Formerly with Simpson and Co. Ltd.ChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations