Advertisement

Eating Disorders

  • Kaveri Chakrabarty
  • A. S. Chakrabarty
Chapter
  • 66 Downloads

Abstract

Eating disorders (EDs) are abnormal and pathological eating habit, leading to many psychiatric and somatic complications and thus constitute a major public health problem. There are many forms of EDs, which are described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Anorexia nervosa (AN) is common in adolescence, especially in girls. Due to intense fear of weight gain, an individual avoids high caloric diet and induces repeated vomiting, leading to emaciation, hypokalemia, alkalosis, and fluid and electrolyte imbalance. Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by recurrent bouts of binge eating in a short period of time. Binge eating is followed by self-induced vomiting and use of laxative and purgative. Complications of the patients suffering from AN and BN occur due to hypokalemia, alkalosis, and electrolyte imbalance. Eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is more or less identical to BN. Binge eating disorder (BED) is different from BN as episodes of binge eating are not followed by purging, fasting, and vigorous exercise. BED patients lose control over his or her eating and become obese due to hyperphagia. EDs are also common during childhood, pregnancy and in Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Keywords

Anorexia nervosa Bulimia nervosa Eating disorder not otherwise specified Binge eating disorder Type 1 diabetes mellitus 

References

  1. Akel M et al (2018) Eating and weight disorders: a mini review of anorexia and bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. IOSR J Pharm 8(4):12–16Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (2006) Treatment of patients with eating disorders, third edition. Am J Psychiatry 163(7 Suppl):4–54Google Scholar
  3. Attia E, Walsh BT (2018) Anorexia nervosa. MSD manual professional version. https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/psychiatric-disorders/eating-disorders/anorexia-nervosa
  4. Duncan L et al (2017) Significant locus and metabolic genetic correlations revealed in genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry 174(9):850–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Galmiche M et al (2019) Prevalence of eating disorders over the 2000-2018 period: a systematic literature review. Am J Clin Nutr 109:1402–1413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hay P et al (2014) Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of eating disorders. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 48(11):977–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kennedy GA et al (2018) Eating disorders in children: is avoidant-restrictive food intake disorder a feeding disorder or an eating disorder and what are the implications for treatment? F1000Res 7:88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Krebs PA et al (2019) Gender differences in eating disorder risk among NCAA division I cross country and track student-athletes. J Sports Med 5035871, 5 pagesGoogle Scholar
  9. Lie SØ et al (2019) Is bullying and teasing associated with eating disorders? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Eat Disord 52(5):497–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Mann J, Truswell SA (eds) (2007) Essentials of human nutrition, 3rd edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  11. Mayhew AJ et al (2018) An evolutionary genetic perspective of eating disorders. Neuroendocrinology 106(3):292–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. McComb SE, Mills JS (2019) Orthorexia nervosa: a review of psychosocial risk factors. Appetite 140:50–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mehler PS et al (2010) Medical complications of eating disorders. In: The treatment of eating disorders: a clinical handbook. Guilford Press, New York, pp 66–80Google Scholar
  14. Plichta M, Jezewska-Zychowicz M (2019) Eating behaviors, attitudes toward health and eating, and symptoms of orthorexia nervosa among students. Appetite 137:114–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rock CL (2010) Nutritional rehabilitation for anorexia nervosa. The treatment of eating disorders: a clinical handbook. Guilford Press, New York, p 187Google Scholar
  16. Saljoughian M (2017) Orthorexia: an eating disorder emerges. US Pharm 42(12):9–10Google Scholar
  17. Singleton C et al (2019) Depression partially mediates the association between binge eating disorder and health-related quality of life. Front Psychol 10:209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Steinglass JE et al (2019) Cognitive neuroscience of eating disorders. Psychiatr Clin N Am 42(1):75–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Steinhausen HC, Jenson MC (2015) Time trends in lifetime incidence rates of first-time diagnosed anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa across 16 years in a Danish nationwide psychiatric registry study. Int J Eat Disord 48(7):845–850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Torjesen I (2019) Diabulimia: the world’s most dangerous eating disorder. BMJ 364:1982Google Scholar
  21. Udo T, Grilo MC (2019) Psychiatric and medical correlates of DSM-5 eating disorders in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. Int J Eat Disord 52:42–50Google Scholar
  22. Ulfvebrand S et al (2015) Psychiatric comorbidity in women and men with eating disorders results from a large clinical database. Psychiatry Res 230(2):294–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Further Reading

  1. Galmiche M et al (2019) Prevalence of eating disorders over the 2000-2018 period: a systematic literature review. Am J Clin Nutr 109:1402–1413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Fifth edition (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Publishing, ArlingtonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association (2006) Treatment of patients with eating disorders, third edition. Am J Psychiatry 163(7 Suppl):4–54Google Scholar
  4. World Health Organization (2004) ICD-10: international statistical classification of diseases and related health problems: tenth revision, 2nd edn. World Health Organization, Geneva. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/42980Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaveri Chakrabarty
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. S. Chakrabarty
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyHansraj College, University of DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Physiology and BiophysicsSchool of Medicine, Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyMaulana Azad Medical CollegeNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Department of PhysiologyJawaharlal Institute of Post-graduate, Medical Education and ResearchPuducherryIndia
  5. 5.Department of PhysiologyVardhman Mahavir Medical CollegeNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations