Nutritional Deficiencies and Disorders

  • Kaveri Chakrabarty
  • A. S. Chakrabarty


Diet history is an important parameter in nutrition science. A diet must provide optimal nutrition to prevent diet-related disorders (undernutrition or overnutrition). Balanced nutrition results in a healthy life. Humans may suffer from malnutrition due to starvation, malabsorption syndrome, maldigestion, protein energy malnutrition (PEM), and eating disorders (Fig. 8.1). Poverty causes health hazards. Low-income families due to lack of education, lack of family planning, and low consumption of nutrients are at high risk of PEM in developing countries. Infants and children of poor mothers die due to PEM. PEM is the most widespread nutritional problem in developing countries. Obesity increases mortality and reduces life span, especially in developed countries. The obese individuals should be educated about the serious health problems of obesity. The obese individuals should consume low-calorie food along with daily exercise. Adipocytes of adipose tissue secrete various biologically active cytokines termed as adipokines. Apart from regulation of adipose tissue mass and nutrients, adipokines take part in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, hemostasis, blood pressure, atherosclerosis, and inflammation. Exercise through the liberation of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and adipokines decreases body weight due to lipolysis. Bariatric surgery is necessary when BMI is more than 40 kg/m2.


Balanced nutrition Malnutrition PEM Starvation Malabsorption syndrome Poverty Obesity Bariatric surgery Adipokines 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaveri Chakrabarty
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. S. Chakrabarty
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyHansraj College, University of DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Physiology and BiophysicsSchool of Medicine, Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyMaulana Azad Medical CollegeNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Department of PhysiologyJawaharlal Institute of Post-graduate, Medical Education and ResearchPuducherryIndia
  5. 5.Department of PhysiologyVardhman Mahavir Medical CollegeNew DelhiIndia

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