Food hypersensitivity may be caused either by food allergy or by food intolerance. Food allergy is an abnormal reaction mediated by antigens, i.e., allergens (glycoprotein) present in certain foods. Food allergic reaction is mediated by IgE. IgE antibodies bind to mast cells. Activation of mast cells releases mediators (histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and platelet-activating factors) causing allergic reactions. Food allergy may lead to life-threatening anaphylaxis, which may lead to anaphylactic shock. Severe allergic reactions may be caused by food-borne parasites. Food intolerance caused by celiac disease is due to the activation of T cells. Celiac disease is caused by prolamin present in wheat (gliadin, main component of gluten fraction), barley (hordein), rye (secalin), and oat (avenin), resulting in severe inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. Food intolerance due to non-IgE-mediated hypersensitivity occurs in individuals suffering from lactose intolerance, galactosemia or fat (present in milk) intolerance. Various nonallergic food hypersensitivities such as oral allergy syndrome, gastrointestinal infections, and gastroesophageal reflux diseases cause adverse food reactions.
Food allergy Anaphylaxis Food intolerance IgE T cell Non-IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity and nonallergic food hypersensitivity
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Abdel-Rehim AS et al (2014) Vitamin D level among Egyptian patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria and its relation to severity of the disease. Egypt J Immunol 21:85–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
Abuzeid WM et al (2012) Vitamin D and chronic rhinitis. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 12:13–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bergler-Czop B, Brzezinska-Wcislo L (2016) Serum vitamin D level—the effect on the clinical course of psoriasis. Postepy Dermatol Alergol 33:445–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chatterjee KD, Chatterjee D (2009) Parasitology (prootozoology and helminthology), 13th edn. CBS Publishers and Distributers Pvt Ltd, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
Cheng HM et al (2014) Low vitamin D levels are associated with atopic dermatitis, but not allergic rhinitis, asthma or IgE sensitization, in the adult Korean population. J Allergy Clin Immunol 133:1048–1055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Colledge NR et al (eds) (2010) Davidson’s principles and practice of medicine, 21st edn. Churchill Livingstone, New YorkGoogle Scholar
Tsai TY, Huang YC (2018) Vitamin D deficiency in patients with chronic and acute urticaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol 79:573–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tuchinda P et al (2018) Relationship between vitamin D and chronic spontaneous urticaria: a systematic review. Clin Transl Allergy 8:51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Upala S, Sanguankeo A (2016) Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with vitiligo: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 32:181–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang CC et al (2018) Sodium butyrate enhances intestinal integrity, inhibits mast cell activation, inflammatory mediator production and JNK signaling pathway in weaned pigs. Innate Immun 24(1):40–46Google Scholar
Wood RA (2017) Oral immunotherapy for food allergy. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 27(3):151–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar