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Food Hypersensitivity

  • Kaveri Chakrabarty
  • A. S. Chakrabarty
Chapter
  • 50 Downloads

Abstract

Food hypersensitivity may be caused either by food allergy or by food intolerance. Food allergy is an abnormal reaction mediated by antigens, i.e., allergens (glycoprotein) present in certain foods. Food allergic reaction is mediated by IgE. IgE antibodies bind to mast cells. Activation of mast cells releases mediators (histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and platelet-activating factors) causing allergic reactions. Food allergy may lead to life-threatening anaphylaxis, which may lead to anaphylactic shock. Severe allergic reactions may be caused by food-borne parasites. Food intolerance caused by celiac disease is due to the activation of T cells. Celiac disease is caused by prolamin present in wheat (gliadin, main component of gluten fraction), barley (hordein), rye (secalin), and oat (avenin), resulting in severe inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. Food intolerance due to non-IgE-mediated hypersensitivity occurs in individuals suffering from lactose intolerance, galactosemia or fat (present in milk) intolerance. Various nonallergic food hypersensitivities such as oral allergy syndrome, gastrointestinal infections, and gastroesophageal reflux diseases cause adverse food reactions.

Keywords

Food allergy Anaphylaxis Food intolerance IgE T cell Non-IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity and nonallergic food hypersensitivity 

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Further Reading

  1. Connors L et al (2018) Non-IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 14(Suppl 2):56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Folkerts J et al (2018) Effect of dietary fiber and metabolites on mast cell activation and mast cell-associated diseases. Front Immunol 9:1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Poole A et al (2018) Cellular and molecular mechanisms of vitamin D in food allergy. J Cell Mol Med 22:3270–3277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Tuchinda P et al (2018) Relationship between vitamin D and chronic spontaneous urticaria: a systematic review. Clin Transl Allergy 8:51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Wood RA (2017) Oral immunotherapy for food allergy. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 27(3):151–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaveri Chakrabarty
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. S. Chakrabarty
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyHansraj College, University of DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Physiology and BiophysicsSchool of Medicine, Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyMaulana Azad Medical CollegeNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Department of PhysiologyJawaharlal Institute of Post-graduate, Medical Education and ResearchPuducherryIndia
  5. 5.Department of PhysiologyVardhman Mahavir Medical CollegeNew DelhiIndia

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