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Water from rivers, ground water, streams, rain water collection, and lakes is not potable as these contain parasites, bacteria, and viruses, leading to water-borne diseases. Ground water contains excessive unwanted minerals such as nitrates, lead, arsenic, chromium, and fluoride. Toxic minerals may lead to serious health problems. Water can be purified by various methods to make it potable. Boiling water, chemical disinfection, filtration, UV purification, solar water disinfection, and reverse osmosis (RO) are various water safety measures for potable water. Water should not be contaminated by rat’s urine. Rat’s urine may contain leptospira bacteria, which may lead to fatal disease known as Weil’s disease.
KeywordsUntreated water Boiling water Chemical disinfection UV purification Solar water disinfection RO Weil’s disease
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