Potable Water

  • Kaveri Chakrabarty
  • A. S. Chakrabarty


Water from rivers, ground water, streams, rain water collection, and lakes is not potable as these contain parasites, bacteria, and viruses, leading to water-borne diseases. Ground water contains excessive unwanted minerals such as nitrates, lead, arsenic, chromium, and fluoride. Toxic minerals may lead to serious health problems. Water can be purified by various methods to make it potable. Boiling water, chemical disinfection, filtration, UV purification, solar water disinfection, and reverse osmosis (RO) are various water safety measures for potable water. Water should not be contaminated by rat’s urine. Rat’s urine may contain leptospira bacteria, which may lead to fatal disease known as Weil’s disease.


Untreated water Boiling water Chemical disinfection UV purification Solar water disinfection RO Weil’s disease 


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Further Reading

  1. Cotruvo J (2018) Drinking water quality and contaminants guidebook, 1st edn. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Levallois P, Belmonte CV (eds) (2019) Drinking water quality and human health. Int J Environ Health Public Res 16:631.
  3. Spellman FR (2017) The drinking water handbook, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaveri Chakrabarty
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. S. Chakrabarty
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyHansraj College, University of DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Physiology and BiophysicsSchool of Medicine, Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyMaulana Azad Medical CollegeNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Department of PhysiologyJawaharlal Institute of Post-graduate, Medical Education and ResearchPuducherryIndia
  5. 5.Department of PhysiologyVardhman Mahavir Medical CollegeNew DelhiIndia

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