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Miscellaneous Health Problems

  • Kaveri Chakrabarty
  • A. S. Chakrabarty
Chapter
  • 62 Downloads

Abstract

Fever is defined as the rise in body temperature due to the increase of set point of hypothalamic thermostat. The normal set point of core temperature is regulated within 37 ± 0.5 °C. Exogenous pyrogens (for example, bacterial toxins) act on macrophages and release endogenous pyrogens (cytokines). Cytokines act on hypothalamic thermostat and release prostaglandins, which raise the set point and body temperature. Fever may be caused by viruses, bacterial infections, protozoans, nematodes, endocrine disorders, pyrexia of unknown origin, and climatic factors. Proper diet plan should be constructed in order to prevent undernutrition/malnutrition or hypovolemia of the patient suffering from fever. Heat stroke is due to the failure of thermoregulatory mechanisms. Rehydration salt therapy and cold therapy is necessary to treat heat stroke without any delay. Heat exhaustion occurs in hot humid weather. Heat cramp, i.e., severe pain in the calf muscles, occurs due to exercise and excessive sweating of athletes. Pain due to heat cramp will disappear after immediate treatment of oral rehydration salt therapy. Prolonged cold exposure causes reduction of physiologic functions, leading to inhibition of respiration, low blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmia, and even ventricular fibrillation. Infants and elderly people, because of poor thermoregulation, are sensitive to hypothermia. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is encountered when repeated adjourn to high altitude is followed by return to sea levels. Repeated cycles of hypoxia and reoxygenation produce many beneficial adaptive responses. CIH can optimize acclimatization and enhance athletic performance. Diseases which cause constipation should be rectified. Preventive measures will minimize or prevent constipation.

Keywords

Fever Diet plan Hypothalamic thermostat Cytokines Prostaglandins Heat stroke Heat exhaustion Heat cramp Hypothermia CIH Constipation 

References

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Further Reading

  1. Colledge NR et al (eds) (2010) Davidson’s principles and practice of medicine, 21st edn. Churchill Livingstone, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Longo DL et al (eds) (2011) Harrison’s principles of internal medicine, 18th edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaveri Chakrabarty
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. S. Chakrabarty
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyHansraj College, University of DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Physiology and BiophysicsSchool of Medicine, Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA
  3. 3.Department of PhysiologyMaulana Azad Medical CollegeNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Department of PhysiologyJawaharlal Institute of Post-graduate, Medical Education and ResearchPuducherryIndia
  5. 5.Department of PhysiologyVardhman Mahavir Medical CollegeNew DelhiIndia

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