Advertisement

Improving “Shrinkage-Swelling” Response of Expansive Soil Using Bio-calcite and Exopolysaccharide Produced by Bacillus sp.

  • V. Guru Krishna Kumar
  • Kaling TakiEmail author
  • Sharad Gupta
  • Ajanta Sachan
Conference paper
  • 38 Downloads
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 56)

Abstract

Biological phenomena standout as a key towards green method for improving the properties of engineering construction material. The present study investigates the effect of Microbial Induced Calcite Precipitation (MICP) and Extracellular Polymeric Substance (EPS) produced by Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) SG4 on “shrinkage-swelling” behavior of expansive soil. The soil used for the study was commercially available Bentonite cohesive soil. The critical soil parameters such as Liquid Limit (LL), Plastic Limit (PL), and Differential Free Swell Index (DFSI) were found to be very high (LL = 608%, PL = 50%, and DFSI = 661%) due to the presence of Montmorillonite mineral. The results showed that treatment of Bentonite expansive soil with bio-calcite and EPS containing B. cereus SG4 culture media worked effectively. Bentonite soil was treated with bacteria along with culture medium for 5 and 10 days. It was observed that there was no significant reduction in geotechnical properties after 10th day of treatment. Maximum effect was observed at the end of 5th day exhibiting the efficiency and strong capability of proposed soil treatment method. After 5th day, LL, PL, and DFSI values were observed to be decreased; 177%, 39%, and 371% for EPS, respectively. The similar response was observed for Bio-calcite technique, which exhibited a significant reduction in LL, PL, and DFSI values (158%, 39%, and 271%), respectively. Both the treatment techniques worked successfully in improving the shrinkage-swelling response of Bentonite soil, but bio-calcite treatment was observed to be more effective than EPS treatment to control the shrinkage-swelling response.

Keywords

Bacillus cereus SG4 Bio-calcite EPS Expansive soil Montmorillonite 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors thank Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar for providing financial support for this work. Authors also thank Ms. Gundeep Kaur Sudan, Ms. S. Smita for their assistance in bacterial screening and Mr. R. Vijayaraghavan (NIOT, Chennai) for his help with genomic characterization and analysis. Authors are very grateful to Dr. Abhijit Mukherjee for valuable discussions and Dr. V. Veeraraghavan for proofreading the manuscript.

References

  1. 1.
    Achal V, Mukherjee A, Reddy MS (2011) Effect of calcifying bacteria on permeation properties of concrete structures. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 38:1229–1234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anbu P, Kang C-H, Shin Y-J, So J-S (2016) Formations of calcium carbonate minerals by bacteria and its multiple applications. Springerplus 5:250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Antón J, Meseguer I, Rodríguez-Valera F (1988) Production of an extracellular polysaccharide by Haloferax mediterranei. Appl Environ Microbiol 54:2381–2386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bachmeier KL, Williams AE, Warmington JR, Bang SS (2002) Urease activity in microbiologically-induced calcite precipitation. J Biotechnol 93:171–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Banagan BL, Wertheim BM, Roth MJS, Caslake LF (2010) Microbial strengthening of loose sand. Lett Appl Microbiol 51:138–142Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bell FG (1996) Lime stabilization of clay minerals and soils. Eng Geol 42:223–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ceyhan N, Ozdemir G (2008) Extracellular polysaccharides produced by cooling water tower biofilm bacteria and their possible degradation. Biofouling 24:129–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cui Y-J, Tang A-M, Qian L-X et al (2011) Thermal-mechanical behavior of compacted GMZ bentonite. Soils Found 51:1065–1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Daniels J, Cherukuri R (2005) Influence of biofilm on barrier material performance. Pract Period Hazard Toxic Radioact Waste Manag 9:245–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dash S, Hussain M (2011) Lime stabilization of soils: reappraisal. J Mater Civ Eng 24:707–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    De Muynck W, Debrouwer D, De Belie N, Verstraete W (2008) Bacterial carbonate precipitation improves the durability of cementitious materials. Cem Concr Res 38:1005–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    DeJong JT, Mortensen BM, Martinez BC, Nelson DC (2010) Bio-mediated soil improvement. Ecol Eng 36:197–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    DuBois M, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK et al (1956) Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal Chem 28:350–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Flemming H-C, Wingender J (2010) The biofilm matrix. Nat Rev Micro 8:623–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Frank JA, Reich CI, Sharma S et al (2008) Critical evaluation of two primers commonly used for amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA Genes. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:2461–2470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ghosh S, Biswas M, Chattopadhyay BD, Mandal S (2009) Microbial activity on the microstructure of bacteria modified mortar. Cem Concr Compos 31:93–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ivanov V, Chu J (2008) Applications of microorganisms to geotechnical engineering for bioclogging and biocementation of soil in situ. Rev Environ Sci Bio/Technol 7:139–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jahns T, Zobel A, Kleiner D, Kaltwasser H (1988) Evidence for carrier-mediated, energy-dependent uptake of urea in some bacteria. Arch Microbiol 149:377–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Krishnapriya S, Venkatesh Babu DL, Pa G (2015) Isolation and identification of bacteria to improve the strength of concrete. Microbiol Res 174:48–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Larkin MA, Blackshields G, Brown NP et al (2007) Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0. Bioinformatics 23:2947–2948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lian B, Hu Q, Chen J et al (2006) Carbonate biomineralization induced by soil bacterium Bacillus megaterium. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 70:5522–5535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mortensen BM, Haber MJ, DeJong JT et al (2011) Effects of environmental factors on microbial induced calcium carbonate precipitation. J Appl Microbiol 111:338–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Natarajan KR (1995) Kinetic study of the enzyme urease from Dolichos biflorus. J Chem Educ 72:556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Paul F, Morin A, Monsan P (1986) Microbial polysaccharides with actual potential industrial applications. Biotechnol Adv 4:245–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pei R, Liu J, Wang S, Yang M (2013) Use of bacterial cell walls to improve the mechanical performance of concrete. Cem Concr Compos 39:122–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rittmann BE, Crawford L, Tuck CK, Namkung E (1986) In situ determination of kinetic parameters for biofilms: isolation and characterization of oligotrophic biofilms. Biotechnol Bioeng 28:1753–1760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sarda D, Choonia HS, Sarode DD, Lele SS (2009) Biocalcification by Bacillus pasteurii urease: a novel application. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 36(8):1111–1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Siddique R, Chahal NK (2011) Effect of ureolytic bacteria on concrete properties. Constr Build Mater 25:3791–3801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Soon NW, Lee LM, Khun TC, Ling HS (2013) Improvements in engineering properties of soils through microbial-induced calcite precipitation. KSCE J Civ Eng 17:718–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D et al (2013) MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol 30:2725–2729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tsuru D, Fukumoto J, Yamamoto T (1974) Process for producing detergent resisting alkaline protease. U.S. Patent No. 3,838,009Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Uppal HL, Chadda LR (1967) Physico-chemical changes in the lime stabilization of black cotton soil (India). Eng Geol 2:179–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wang JY, Soens H, Verstraete W, De Belie N (2014) Self-healing concrete by use of microencapsulated bacterial spores. Cem Concr Res 56:139–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wingender J, Neu TR, Flemming H-C (1999) What are bacterial extracellular polymeric substances? In: Wingender J, Neu TR, Flemming H-C (eds) Microbial extracellular polymeric substances: characterization, structure and function. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhu T, Dittrich M (2016) Carbonate precipitation through microbial activities in natural environment, and their potential in biotechnology: a review. Front Bioeng Biotechnol 4:4.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2016.00004CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. Guru Krishna Kumar
    • 1
  • Kaling Taki
    • 2
    Email author
  • Sharad Gupta
    • 1
  • Ajanta Sachan
    • 2
  1. 1.Biological EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology GandhinagarGandhinagarIndia
  2. 2.Civil EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology GandhinagarGandhinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations