Rutting Performance of PPA-Modified Binders Using Multiple Stress Creep and Recovery (MSCR) Test

  • Shivani RaniEmail author
  • Rouzbeh Ghabchi
  • Musharraf Zaman
  • Syed Ashik Ali
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 56)


In this study, the effect of modifying an asphalt binder using Polyphosphoric Acid (PPA) on its rutting performance was studied using the Multiple Stress Creep and Recovery (MSCR) test. The MSCR test provided the non-recoverable creep compliance and percent recovery of the tested binder blends at the test temperature(s). Those parameters were then used to evaluate the stress sensitivity and rutting potential of the PPA-modified binders and were utilized to determine the binder grade based on the level of traffic. For this purpose, a PG 58-28 binder was blended with different amounts of PPA, namely 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% using a high shear mixer. The MSCR tests were conducted at two different stress levels (0.1 and 3.2 kPa) and two different temperatures (58 and 64 °C). It was found that adding PPA decreases the non-recoverable creep compliance of the neat binder. Consequently, the MSCR grade of the neat binder was found to improve from PG58S-XX to PG58E-XX, when blended with 2.0% PPA. Additionally, the percent recovery of the neat binder was found enhanced due to PPA modification. Therefore, it is anticipated that the mixes containing PPA would sustain a higher level of traffic without undergoing a significant amount of rutting compared to mixes containing non-PPA modified binders. Also, it was observed that the PPA-modified binders can exhibit stiffness similar to polymer-modified binders.


Rutting Polyphosphoric acid (PPA) Multiple stress creep and recovery (MSCR) Test MSCR grade And percent recovery 



The financial support from the Southern Plain Transportation Center (SPTC) and the Oklahoma Department of Transportation for this study is gratefully acknowledged. The authors would also like to acknowledge Haskell Lemon Construction Co. and Valero Refinery for providing the materials for this study.


  1. 1.
    Al-Qadi IL, Abauwad IM, Dhasmana H, Coenen AR (2014) Effects of various asphalt binder additives/modifiers on moisture-susceptible asphaltic mixtures. Report No. ICT-14–004, UILU-ENG-2014-2004, Illinois Center for Transportation, Rantoul, ILGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arnold TS, Youtcheff Jr JS, Needham SP (2009) Use of phosphoric acid as modifier for hot-mix asphalt. In: Polyphosphoric acid modification of asphalt binders: a workshop, circular E-C160, pp 40–51Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bahia HU, Hanson DI, Zeng M, Zhai H, Khatri MA, Anderson MR (2000) A project NCHRP 9-10 Superpave protocols for modified asphalt binders. Draft Topical Report (Task 9), Prepared for National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baldino N, Gabriele D, Lupi FR, Rossi CO, Caputo P, Falvo T (2013) Rheological effects on bitumen of polyphosphoric acid (PPA) addition. Constr Build Mater 40:397–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baumgardner GL, Masson JF, Hardee JR, Menapace AM, Williams AG (2005) Polyphosphoric acid modified asphalt: proposed mechanisms. J Assoc Asphalt Paving Technol 74:283–305Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    D’Angelo J (2010) New high-temperature binder specification using multistress creep and recovery. In: Development in asphalt, transportation research circular, E-C147, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, pp 1–13Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D’Angelo J, Anderson RM (2003) Material production, mix design, and pavement design effects on moisture damage. In: Proceeding of moisture sensitivity of asphalt pavements: a national seminar, San Diego, California, pp 187–201Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Falkiewicz M, Grzybowski K (2004) Polyphosphoric acid in asphalt modification. In: Presented at Western Research Institute symposium on pavement performance prediction, Laramie, WYGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Giavarini C, Mastrofini D, Scarsella M, Barre L, Espinat D (2000) Macrostructure and rheological properties of chemically modified residues and bitumens. Energy Fuels 14:495–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ho S, Zanzotto L, MacLeod D (2002) Impact of different types of modification on low-temperature tensile strength and Tcritical of asphalt binders. Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board, No. 1810, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ho S, Zanzotto L, MacLeod D (2001) Impact of chemical modification on composition and properties of asphalt binders. Proc Can Tech Asphalt Assoc 46:153–170Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jaroszek H (2012) Polyphosphoric acid (PPA) in road asphalts modification. Chemik 66(12):1340–1345Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kodrat I, Sohn D, Hesp S (2007) Comparison of polyphosphoric acid-modified asphalt binders with straight and polymer-modified materials. Transp Res Rec J Transp Res Board No. 1998, 47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Maldonaldo R, Falkiewicz M, Bazi G, Grzybowski K (2006) Asphalt modification with polyphosphoric acid. In: Fifty-First annual conference of the Canadian technical asphalt association (CTAA), Charlottetown, Prince Edward IslandGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Orange G, Dupuis D, Martin JV, Farcas F, Such C, Marcant B (2004a) Chemical modification of bitumen through polyphosphoric acid: properties-micro-structure relationship. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Eurasphalt and Eurobitume Congress Held ViennaGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Orange G, Martin JV, Menapace A, Hemsley M, Baumgardner GL (2004) Rutting and moisture resistance of asphalt mixtures containing polymer and polyphosphoric acid modified bitumen. Road Mater Pavement Des 5(3):323–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reinke G (2010) Use of Hamburg rut testing data to validate the use of Jnr as a performance parameter for high-temperature permanent deformation. In: Development in asphalt, transportation research circular, E-C147, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, pp 14–24Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yan K, Zhang H, Xu H (2013) Effect of polyphosphoric acid on physical properties, chemical composition and morphology of bitumen. Constr Build Mater 47:92–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zorn S, Mehta Y, Dahm K, Batten E, Nolan A, Dusseau R (2011) Rheological properties of the polymer modified bitumen with emphasis on SBS polymer and its microstructure. Road Mater New Innov Pavement Eng 41–48Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shivani Rani
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rouzbeh Ghabchi
    • 2
  • Musharraf Zaman
    • 3
  • Syed Ashik Ali
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Civil Engineering and Environmental ScienceThe University of OklahomaNormanUSA
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringSouth Dakota State UniversityBrookingsUSA
  3. 3.Civil Engineering, Petroleum and Geological Engineering, Southern Plains Transportation CenterThe University of OklahomaNormanUSA

Personalised recommendations