Advertisement

Endophytes: A Potential Bio-agent for the Plant Protection

  • Swapan Kumar Ghosh
  • Malvika Chaudhary
  • N. Manjunatha
Chapter
  • 23 Downloads

Abstract

Endophytes are microorganisms living inside plants without causing any adverse effect. The symbiotic microorganism endophytes can be an alternative for the management of insect pests and plant pathogens. Select endophytes also function as biofertilizers, resulting in improved plant fitness. It will be crucially important to understand the mechanisms underlying endophytism. The responses of a crop plant to such endophytism and the subsequent responses of insect pests and plant pathogenesis are important to understand. Many aspects of the insect/pathogen and the endophytic microorganism remain unattended. This gap can be filled through an intensive research and understanding of signalling between the host plant and the microbiome. Despite the abundance of endophytes in crop rhizosphere, the rules that govern their presence and interaction with the crop plants are poorly understood. Recently, endophytes in seed tissues have gained significance due to their diversified roles in plant metabolism.

Keywords

Endophytes Plant-growth improvement Biocontrol agent Phytoremediation 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors are thankful to the authorities of the Multiplex Biotech Pvt. Ltd., Bengaluru, CABI, New Delhi, and the Murdoch University, Perth, Australia, for encouragement.

References

  1. Agarwal VK, Sinclair JB (1996) Principle of seed pathology. Lewis Publication, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  2. Akello J, Dubois T, Coyne DL, Hillnhűtter C (2008a) Beauveria bassiana as an artificial endophyte in tissue cultured banana (Musa spp.) plants: a novel way to combat the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. In: 41st Annual meeting of the Society of Invertebrate Pathology and 9th international conference on Bacillus thuringiensis, Conventry, UK, 3–7 Aug 2008Google Scholar
  3. Akello J, Dubois T, Coyne D, Kyamanywa S (2008b) Effect of endophytic Beauveria bassiana on populations of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, and their damage in tissue-cultured banana plants. Entomol Exp Appl 129(2):157–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akello J, Sikora R (2012) Systemic acropedal influence of endophyte seed treatment on Acyrthosiphon pisum and Aphis fabae offspring development and reproductive fitness. Biol Control 61(3):215–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Akutse KS, Maniania NK, Fiaboe KKM, Van den Berg J, Ekesi S (2013) Endophytic colonization of Vicia faba and Phaseolus vulgaris (Fabaceae) by fungal pathogens and their effects on the life-history parameters of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Fungal Ecol 6(4):293–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aly AH, Debbab A, Proksch P (2011) Fungal endophytes: unique plant inhabitants with great promises. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 90(6):1829–1845CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Arnold AE, Herre EA (2003) Canopy cover and leaf age affect colonization by tropical fungal endophytes: ecological pattern and process in Theobroma cacao (Malvaceae). Mycologia 95(3):388–398CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Arnold AE, Lewis LC (2005) Ecology and evolution of fungal endophytes, and their roles against insects. In: Insect-fungal associations: ecology and evolution. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 74–96Google Scholar
  9. Arnold AE, Henk DA, Eells RL, Lutzoni F, Vilgalys R (2007) Diversity and phylogenetic affinities of foliar fungal endophytes in loblolly pine inferred by culturing and environmental PCR. Mycologia 99(2):185–206CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Aschehoug ET, Metlen KL, Callaway RM, Newcombe G (2012) Fungal endophytes directly increase the competitive effects of an invasive forb. Ecology 93(1):3–8CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Azevedo JL, Maccheroni W Jr, Pereira JO, de Araújo WL (2000) Endophytic microorganisms: a review on insect control and recent advances on tropical plants. Electron J Biotechnol 3(1):15–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Azevedo JL (2000) Endophytic microorganisms: a review on insect control and recent advances on tropical plants. Electron J Biotechnol 3(1):15–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Barka EA, Nowak J, Clément C (2006) Enhancement of chilling resistance of inoculated grapevine plantlets with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN. Appl Environ Microbiol 72(11):7246–7252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bhagyasree SN, Ghosh SK, Thippaiah M, Rajgopal NN (2018) Survey on natural occurrence of endophytes in maize (Zea mays L.) Ecosystem. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 7(1):2526–2533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bhore SJ, Christina A, Christapher V (2013) Endophytic bacteria as a source of novel antibiotics: an overview. Pharmacogn Rev 7(1):11CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Bills GF, Polishook JD (1991) Microfungi from Carpinus caroliniana. Can J Bot 69(7):1477–1482Google Scholar
  17. Bing LA, Lewis LC (1991) Suppression of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) by endophytic Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin. Environ Entomol 20(4):1207–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cankar K, Kraigher H, Ravnikar M, Rupnik M (2005) Bacterial endophytes from seeds of Norway spruce (L. Karst). FEMS Microbiol Lett 244(2):341–345CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Canny MJ, McCully ME (1988) The xylem sap of maize roots: its collection, composition and formation. Funct Plant Biol 15(4):557–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Castillo U, Harper JK, Strobel GA, Sears J, Alesi K, Ford E, Yaver D (2003) Kakadumycins, novel antibiotics from Streptomyces sp. NRRL 30566, an endophyte of Grevillea pteridifolia. FEMS Microbiol Lett 224(2):183–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cherry AJ, Lomer CJ, Djegui D, Schulthess F (1999) Pathogen incidence and their potential as microbial control agents in IPM of maize stem borers in West Africa. BioControl 44(3):301–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Clay K (1989) Clavicipitaceous endophytes of grasses: their potential as biocontrol agents. Mycol Res 92(1):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Clay K (1992) Fungal endophytes of plants: biological and chemical diversity. Nat Toxins 1(3):147–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Clarke BB, White JF, Hurley RH, Torres MS, Sun S, Huff DR (2006) Endophyte-mediated suppression of dollar spot disease in Fine Fescues. Plant Dis 90(8):994–998CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Crowley DA (2006) Microbial siderophores in the plant rhizosphere. In: Barton LL, Abadia J (eds) Iron nutrition in plants and rhizosphere microorganisms. Springer, Netherland, pp 169–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dastogeer KMG, Li H, Sivasithamparam K, Jones MGK, Wylie SJ (2018) Host specificity of endophytic mycobiota of wild nicotiana plants from Arid regions of Northern Australia. Microb Ecol 75(1):74–87CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. De Bery A (1866) Morphologic and physiologie der plize, Flechten, and Myxomyceten. In: De Bary A, Irmisch T, Pringsheim N, Sachs J (eds) Handbuch der Physiologischen botanok, vol 2. LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  28. Faeth SH, Sullivan TJ (2003) Mutualistic asexual endophytes in a native grass are usually parasitic. Am Nat 161(2):310–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fuller-Schaefer C, Jung K, Jaronski S (2005) Colonization of sugarbeet roots by entomopathogenic fungi. In: Proceedings of the 38th Annual Meeting of the Society for Invertebrate Pathology, Anchorage, Alaska (Vol 49)Google Scholar
  30. Fürnkranz M, Lukesch B, Müller H, Huss H, Grube M, Berg G (2012) Microbial diversity inside pumpkins: microhabitat-specific communities display a high antagonistic potential against phytopathogens. Microb Ecol 63(2):418–428CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Ganley RJ, Brunsfeld SJ, Newcombe G (2004) A community of unknown, endophytic fungi in western white pine. Proc Natl Acad Sci 101(27):10107–10112CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Gao FK, Dai CC, Liu XZ (2010) Mechanisms of fungal endophytes in plant protection against pathogens. Afr J Microbiol Res 4(13):1346–1351Google Scholar
  33. Gravel V, Antoun H, Tweddell RJ (2007) Growth stimulation and fruit yield improvement of greenhouse tomato plants by inoculation with Pseudomonas putida or Trichoderma atroviride: possible role of indole acetic acid (IAA). Soil Biol Biochem 39(8):1968–1977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Greenfield M, Gómez-Jiménez MI, Ortiz V, Vega FE, Kramer M, Parsa S (2016) Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae endophytically colonize cassava roots following soil drench inoculation. Biol Control 95:40–48CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Griffin MR (2007) Beauveria bassiana, a cotton endophyte with biocontrol activity against seedling disease. Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Tennessee, KnoxvilleGoogle Scholar
  36. Griffin MR, Ownley BH, Klingemn WE, Pereira RM (2006) Evidence of induced systemic resistance of beauveria bassiana against Xanthomonas in cotton. Phytopathology 96:S42Google Scholar
  37. Guo B, Wang Y, Sun X, Tang K (2008) Bioactive natural products from endophytes: a review. Appl Biochem Microbiol 44(2):136–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gurulingappa P, Sword GA, Murdoch G, McGee PA (2010) Colonization of crop plants by fungal entomopathogens and their effects on two insect pests when in planta. Biol Control 55(1):34–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Han JI, Choi HK, Lee SW, Orwin PM, Kim J, LaRoe SL et al (2011) Complete genome sequence of the metabolically versatile plant growth-promoting endophyte Variovorax paradoxus S110. J Bacteriol 193(5):1183–1190CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Hardoim PR, van Overbeek LS, Berg G, Pirttilä AM, Compant S, Campisano A, Döring M, Sessitsch A (2015) The hidden world within plants: ecological and evolutionary considerations for defining functioning of microbial endophytes. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 79(3):293–320CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. Hirsch GU, Rraun U (1992) Communities of parasitic microfingi. In: Winter Hoff W (ed) Handbook of vegetation science: fungi in vegetation science, vol 19. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 225–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jaber LR (2015) Grapevine leaf tissue colonization by the fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana s.l. and its effect against downy mildew. BioControl 60(1):103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jaber LR, Nida' MS (2014) Endophytic colonisation of squash by the fungal entomopathogen (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) for managing in cucurbits. Biocontrol Sci Technol 24(10):1096–1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Karthiba L, Saveetha K, Suresh S, Raguchander T, Saravanakumar D, Samiyappan R (2010) PGPR and entomopathogenic fungus bioformulation for the synchronous management of leaffolder pest and sheath blight disease of rice. Pest Manag Sci 66(5):555–564CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Kogel KH, Franken P, Huckelhoven R (2006) Endophyte or parasite—what decides? Curr Opin Plant Biol 9(4):358–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ladha JK, Reddy PM (2003) Nitrogen fixation in rice systems: state of knowledge and future prospects. Plant Soil 252(1):151–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lopez DC, Sword GA (2015) The endophytic fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Purpureocillium lilacinum enhance the growth of cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and negatively affect survival of the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa zea). Biol Control 89:53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Malinnowski DP, Alloush GA, Belesky DP (2000) Leaf endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum modifies mineral uptake in tall fescuelant soil. Science 227:115–126Google Scholar
  49. Mukhopadhyay K, Garrison NK, Hinton DM, Bacon CW, Khush GS, Peck HD, Datta N (1996) Identification and characterization of bacterial endophytes of rice. Mycopathologia 134(3):151–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Murphy B, Doohan F, Hodkinson T (2018) From concept to commerce: developing a successful fungal endophyte inoculant for agricultural crops. J Fungi 4(1):24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Naveed M, Hussain MB, Zahir ZA, Mitter B, Sessitsch A (2014) Drought stress amelioration in wheat through inoculation with Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN. Plant Growth Regul 73(2):121–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Olson PE, Castro A, Joern M, DuTeau NM, Pilon-Smits E, Reardon KF (2008) Effects of agronomic practices on phytoremediation of an aged PAH-contaminated soil. J Environ Qual 37(4):1439–1446CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Ownley BH, Griffin MR, Klingeman WE, Gwinn KD, Moulton JK, Pereira RM (2008) Beauveria bassiana: endophytic colonization and plant disease control. J Invertebr Pathol 98(3):267–270CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Parsa S, Ortiz V, Vega FE (2013) Establishing fungal entomopathogens as endophytes: towards endophytic biological control. J Vis Exp (74):E50360.  https://doi.org/10.3791/50360
  55. Piccoli P, Bottini R (2013) Abiotic stress tolerance induced by endophytic PGPR. In: Symbiotic endophytes. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pimentel IC, Glienke-Blanco C, Gabardo J, Stuart RM, Azevedo JL (2006) Identification and colonization of endophytic fungi from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) under different environmental conditions. Braz Arch Biol Technol 49(5):705–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Posada F, Aime MC, Peterson SW, Rehner SA, Vega FE (2007) Inoculation of coffee plants with the fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales). Mycol Res 111(6):748–757CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. Powell WA, Klingeman WE, Ownley BH, Gwinn KD, Dee M, Flanagan PC (2007) Endophytic Beauveria bassiana in tomatoes yields mycosis in tomato friuitworm larvae. Hort Sci 42:933Google Scholar
  59. Prabhavathi MK (2012) Studies on the endophytic properties of Entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) against Banana pseudostem weevil, Odoiroporus longicollis (oliv). M.Sc thesis -PAL-0097, p 119Google Scholar
  60. Puente ME, Li CY, Bashan Y (2009a) Endophytic bacteria in cacti seeds can improve the development of cactus seedlings. Environ Exp Bot 66(3):402–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Puente ME, Li CY, Bashan Y (2009b) Rock-degrading endophytic bacteria in cacti. Environ Exp Bot 66(3):389–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Qayyum MA, Wakil W, Arif MJ, Sahi ST, Dunlap CA (2015) Infection of Helicoverpa armigera by endophytic Beauveria bassiana colonizing tomato plants. Biol Control 90:200–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Quadt-Hallmann A, Kloepper JW, Benhamou N (1997) Bacterial endophytes in cotton: mechanisms of entering the plant. Can J Microbiol 43(6):577–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Quesada-Moraga E, Munoz-Ledesma F, Santiago-Alvarez C (2009) Systemic protection of Papaver somniferum L. against Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) by an endophytic strain of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales). Environ Entomol 38:723–730CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Radwan S (2009) Phytoremediation for Oily Desert Soils. In: Singh A, Kuhad CR, Ward PO (eds) Advances in applied bioremediation. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 279–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rajkumar M, Prasad MNV, Freitas H, Noriharu AE (2009) Biotechnological applications of serpentine soil bacteria for phytoremediation of trace metals. Crit Rev Biotechnol 29(2):120–130CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Rodrı́guez H, Fraga R (1999) Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion. Biotechnol Adv 17(4–5):319–339CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Russo ML, Pelizza SA, Cabello MN, Stenglein SA, Scorsetti AC (2015) Endophytic colonisation of tobacco, corn, wheat and soybeans by the fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota, Hypocreales). Biocontrol Sci Tech 25(4):475–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rybakova D, Cernava T, Köberl M, Liebminger S, Etemadi M, Berg G (2016) Endophytes-assisted biocontrol: novel insights in ecology and the mode of action of Paenibacillus. Plant Soil 405(1-2):125–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Saikkonen K, Wali P, Helander M, Faeth SH (2004) Evolution of endophyte-plant symbioses. Trends Plant Sci 9(6):275–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Selosse MA, Baudoin E, Vandenkoornhuyse P (2004) Symbiotic microorganisms, a key for ecological success and protection of plants. C R Biol 327(7):639–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Senthilraja G, Anand T, Durairaj C, Raguchander T, Samiyappan R (2010) Chitin-based bioformulation of Beauveria bassiana and Pseudomonas fluorescens for improved control of leafminer and collar rot in groundnut. Crop Prot 29(9):1003–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Senthilraja G, Anand T, Kennedy JS, Raguchander T, Samiyappan R (2013) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and entomopathogenic fungus bioformulation enhance the expression of defense enzymes and pathogenesis-related proteins in groundnut plants against leafminer insect and collar rot pathogen. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 82:10–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sessitsch A, Reiter B, Berg G (2004) Endophytic bacterial communities of field-grown potato plants and their plant-growth-promoting and antagonistic abilities. Can J Microbiol 50(4):239–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shrivastava G, Ownley BH, Augé RM, Toler H, Dee M, Andrea V, Köllner TG, Chen F (2015) Colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi enhanced terpene production in tomato plants and their defense against a herbivorous insect. Symbiosis 65(2):65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Stępniewska Z, Kuźniar A (2013) Endophytic microorganisms-promising applications in bioremediation of greenhouse gases. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97(22):9589–9596CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Suryanarayanan ST, Vidal S, Rajulu G (2016) Biological control through fungal endophytes: gaps in knowledge hindering success. Curr Biotechnol 7(3):185–198.  https://doi.org/10.2174/2211550105666160504130322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Suryanarayanan TS (2013) Endophyte research: going beyond isolation and metabolite documentation. Fungal Ecol 6(6):561–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tefera T, Vidal S (2009) Effect of inoculation method and plant growth medium on endophytic colonization of sorghum by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. BioControl 54(5):663–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Truyens S, Weyens N, Cuypers A, Vangronsveld J (2015) Bacterial seed endophytes: genera, vertical transmission and interaction with plants. Environ Microbiol Rep 7(1):40–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Varma PK, Uppala S, Pavuluri K, Chandra KJ, Chapala MM, Kumar KVK (2017) Endophytes: role and functions in crop health. In: Plant-microbe interactions in agro-ecological perspectives. Springer, Singapore, pp 291–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Vega FE (2008) Insect pathology and fungal endophytes. J Invertebr Pathol 98:277–279CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Wagner BL, Lewis LC (2000) Colonization of corn, Zea mays, by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. Appl Environ Microbiol 66(8):3468–3473CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Webber J (1981) A natural biological control of Dutch elm disease. Nature 292(5822):449–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Westendorf ML, Mitchell GE Jr, Tucker RE, Bush LP, Petroski RJ, Powell RG (1993) In vitro and in vivo ruminal and physiological responses to endophyte-infected tall fescue. J Dairy Sci 76(2):555–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Weyens N, van der Lelie D, Taghavi S, Vangronsveld J (2009) Phytoremediation: plant–endophyte partnerships take the challenge. Curr Opin Biotechnol 20(2):248–254CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Zahir ZA, Arshad M, Frankenberger WT (2004) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: applications and perspectives in agriculture. Adv Agron 81(1):98–169Google Scholar
  88. Zhao X-h, Wang W, Tong B, Zhang S-p, Wei D-z (2016) A newly isolated Penicillium oxalicum 16 cellulase with high efficient synergism and high tolerance of monosaccharide. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 178(1):173–183CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Swapan Kumar Ghosh
    • 1
  • Malvika Chaudhary
    • 2
  • N. Manjunatha
    • 3
  1. 1.Multiplex Biotech Private LimitedBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.CABI-South AsiaNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Murdoch UniversityPerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations