Advertisement

Slope Stability Analysis Based on Coupled Approach

  • Lizhou WuEmail author
  • Runqiu Huang
  • Xu Li
Chapter

Abstract

Landslides that can result from high-intensity rainfall can be detrimental to infrastructure and can contribute to loss of human lives. Shallow rainfall-caused landslides are represented as sliding that appears down a surface parallel to sloping ground.

References

  1. Ali A, Huang JS, Lyamin AV, Sloan SW, Cassidy MJ (2014) Boundary effects of rainfall-induced landslides. Comput Geotech 61:341–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson SA, Sitar N (1995) Analysis of rainfall-induced debris flows. J Geotech Eng 121(7):544–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ASTM D 3080-98 (2003) Standard test method for direct shear test of soils under consolidated drained conditions Annual Book of ASTM Standards. American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, 04.08, pp 347–352Google Scholar
  4. Bishop AW (1959) The principle of effective stress. Tek Ukebl 39:859–863Google Scholar
  5. Brand EW (1981) Some thoughts on rainfall induced slope failures. In: Proceedings of 10th international conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  6. Brand EW, Premchitt J, Phillipson HB (1984) Relationship between rainfall and landslides in Hong Kong. In: Toronto: Proceeding of 4th international symposium landslides, pp 377–384Google Scholar
  7. Cai F, Ugai K (2004) Numerical analysis of rainfall effects on slope stability. Int J Geomech 4(2):69–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Casadei M, Dietrich WE, Miller NL (2003) Testing a model for predicting the timing and location of shallow landslides initiation in soil-mantled landscapes. Earth Surf Process Landf 28:925–950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Casini F, Serri V, Springman SM (2013) Hydromechanical behaviour of a silty sand from a steep slope triggered by artificial rainfall: from unsaturated to saturated conditions. Can Geotech J 50(1):28–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cevasco A, Pepe G, Brandolini P (2014) The influences of geological and land use settings on shallow landslides triggered by an intense rainfall event in a coastal terraced environment. Bull Eng Geol Environ 73:859–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chae BG, Kim MI (2012) Suggestion of a method for landslide early warning using the change in the volumetric water content gradient due to rainfall infiltration. Environ Earth Sci 66:1973–1986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen HX, Zhang LM (2014) A physically-based distributed cell model for predicting regional rainfall-induced slope failures. Eng Geol 176:79–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen CY, Chen TC, Yu WH, Lin SC (2005) Analysis of time-varying rainfall infiltration induced landslide. Environ Geol 48:466–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cho SE (2009) Infiltration analysis to evaluate the surficial stability of two-layered slopes considering rainfall characteristics. Eng Geol 105:32–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cho SE, Lee SR (2001) Instability of unsaturated soil slopes due to infiltration. Comput Geotech 28:185–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cho SE, Lee SR (2002) Evaluation of surficial stability for homogeneous slopes considering rainfall characteristics. J Geotech Geoenviron 128(9):756–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Collins BD, Znidarcic D (2004) Stability analyses of rainfall induced landslides. J Geotech Geoenviron 130(4):362–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Damiano E, Olivares L (2010) The role of infiltration processes in steep slope stability of pyroclastic granular soils: laboratory and numerical investigation. Nat Hazards 52(2):329–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fan XM, Xu Q, Zhang ZY, Meng DS, Tang R (2009) The genetic mechanism of a translational landslide. Bull Eng Geol Environ 68(2):231–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fourie AB (1996) Predicting rainfall-induced slope instability. Proc ICE-Geotech Eng 119(4):211–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fredlund DG, Rahardjo H (1993) Soil mechanics for unsaturated soils. Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gao L, Zhang LM, Chen HX (2015) Likely scenarios of natural terrain shallow slope failures on Hong Kong Island under extreme storms. Nat Hazards Rev.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)NH.1527-6996.0000207,B4015001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Garcia E, Oka F, Kimoto S (2011) Numerical analysis of a one-dimensional infiltration problem in unsaturated soil by a seepage–deformation coupled method. Int J Numer Anal Meth Geomech 35(5):544–568zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Geo-slope Ltd (2007) Seep/W for finite element seepage analysis: user’s guide. Calgary, Geo-slope LtdGoogle Scholar
  25. Godt JW, Baum RL, Lu N (2009) Landsliding in partially saturated materials. Geophys Res Lett 36:L02403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Griffiths DV, Lu N (2005) Unsaturated slope stability analysis with steady infiltration or evaporation using elasto-plastic finite elements. Int J Numer Anal Met 29:249–267zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Guns M, Vanacker V (2013) Forest cover change trajectories and their impact on landslide occurrence in the tropical Andes. Environ Earth Sci 70(7):2941–2952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Guzzetti F, Cardinali M, Reichenbach P, Cipollab F, Sebastianib C, Gallia M, Salvatia P (2004) Landslides triggered by the 23 November 2000 rainfall event in the Imperia Province, Western Liguria, Italy. Eng Geol 73(3):229–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Guzzetti F, Peruccacci S, Rossi M, Stark CP (2007) Rainfall thresholds for the initiation of landslides. Meteorol Atmos Phys 98(3):239–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hird CC, Hassona FAK (1990) Some factors affecting the liquefaction and flow of saturated sands in laboratory tests. Eng Geol 28:149–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hong Y, Hiura H, Shino K, Sassa K, Fukuoka H (2005) Quantitative assessment on the influence of heavy rainfall on the crystalline schist landslide by monitoring system-case study on Zentoku landslide Japan. Landslides 2:31–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hu R, Chen Y, Zhou C (2011) Modeling of coupled deformation, water flow and gas transport in soil slopes subjected to rain infiltration. Sci China Technol Sci 54(10):2561zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Huang RQ (2012) Mechanisms of large-scale landslides in China. Bull Eng Geol Environ 71(1):161–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Huang CC, Yuin SC (2010) Experimental investigation of rainfall criteria for shallow slope failures. Geomorphology 120:326–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Huang CC, Lo CL, Jang JS, Hwu LK (2008) Internal soil moisture response to rainfall-induced slope failures and debris discharge. Eng Geol 101:134–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Huang J, Wu P, Zhao X (2013) Effects of rainfall intensity, underlying surface and slope gradient on soil infiltration under simulated rainfall experiments. CATENA 104:93–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Igwe O, Mode W, Nnebedum O, Okonkwo I, Oha I (2014) The analysis of rainfall-induced slope failures at Iva Valley area of Enugu State, Nigeria. Environ Earth Sci 71(5):2465–2480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Iverson RM (2000) Landslide triggering by rain infiltration. Water Resour Res 36(7):1897–1910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Iverson RM, Reid ME (1992) Gravity-driven ground water flow and slope failure potential. 1. Elastic effective-stress model. Water Resour Res 28:925–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kim J, Jeong S, Park S, Sharma J (2004) Influence of rainfall-induced wetting on the stability of slopes in weathered soils. Eng Geol 75:251–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lacerda WA (2007) Landslide initiation in saprolite and colluvium in southern Brazil: field and laboratory observations. Geomorphology 87:104–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lee LM, Gofar N, Rahardjo H (2009) A simple model for preliminary evaluation of rainfall-induced slope instability. Eng Geol 108:272–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lee LM, Kassim A, Gofar N (2011) Performances of two instrumented laboratory models for the study of rainfall infiltration into unsaturated soils. Eng Geol 117(1–2):78–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lewis RW, Schrefler BA (1998) The finite element method in the static and dynamic deformation and consolidation of porous media. John Wiley & Sons, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  45. Li JH, Zhang LM, Wang Y, Fredlund DG (2009) Permeability tensor and REV of saturated cracked soil. Can Geotech J 46(8):928–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Li WC, Lee LM, Cai H, Li HJ, Dai FC, Wang ML (2013) Combined roles of saturated permeability and rainfall characteristics on surficial failure of homogeneous soil slope. Eng Geol 153:105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Li WC, Lee LM, Cai H, Li HJ, Dai FC, Wang ML (2013b) Combined roles of saturated permeability and rainfall characteristics on surficial failure of homogeneous soil slope. Eng Geol 153(8):105–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lloret A, Gens A, Batlle F, Alonso EE (1987) Flow and deformation analysis of partially saturated soils. In: Proceedings 9th European conference on soil mechanics, vol 2, Dublin, pp 565–568Google Scholar
  49. Lourenco SDN, Sassa K, Fukuoka H (2006) Failure process and hydrologic response of a two layer physical model: implications for rainfall-induced landslides. Geomorphology 73(1–2):115–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ltd Geo-slope (2007) Slope/W for slope stability analysis: user’s guide. Geo-slope Ltd., CalgaryGoogle Scholar
  51. Lu N, Godt J (2008) Infinite slope stability under steady unsaturated seepage conditions. Water Resour Res 44:W11404Google Scholar
  52. Lumb (1962) Effect of rainstorm on slope stability. In: Proceedings of symposium Hong Kong Soils, Hong Kong, pp 73–87Google Scholar
  53. Major JJ, Iverson RM (1999) Debris-flow deposition: effects of pore-fluid pressure and friction concentrated at flow margins. Geol Soc Am Bull 111:1424–1434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Matsushi Y, Hattanji T, Matsukura Y (2006) Mechanisms of shallow landslides on soil-mantled hillslopes with permeable and impermeable bedrocks in the Boso Peninsula, Japan. Geomorphology 76:92–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Miao HB, Wang GH, Yin KL, Kamai T, Li YY (2014) Mechanism of the slow-moving landslides in Jurassic red-strata in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Eng Geol 171:59–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Moriwaki H, Inokuchi T, Hattanji T, Sassa K, Ochiai H, Wang G (2004) Failure processes in a full-scale landslide experiment using a rainfall simulator. Landslides 1:277–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mualem Y, Dagan G (1978) Hydraulic conductivity of soils: unified approach to the statistical models. Soil Sci Soc Am J 42:392–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Muntohar AS, Liao HJ (2009) Analysis of rainfall-induced infinite slope failure during typhoon using a hydrological–geotechnical model. Environ Geol 56:1145–1159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Muntohar AS, Liao HJ (2010) Rainfall infiltration: infinite slope model for landslides triggering by rainstorm. Nat Hazards 54:967–984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Murthy VNS (2002) Geotechnical engineering: principles and practices of soil mechanics and foundation engineering. CRC PressGoogle Scholar
  61. Ng CWW, Shi Q (1998) A numerical investigation of the stability of unsaturated soil slopes subjected to transient seepage. Comput Geotech 22(1):1–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ng CWW, Zhan LT, Bao CG, Fredlund DG, Gong BW (2003) Performance of an unsaturated expansive soil slope subjected to artificial rainfall infiltration. Geotechnique 53(2):143–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ochiai H, Okada Y, Furuya G, Okura Y, Matsui T, Sammori T, Terajima T, Sassa K (2004) A fluidized landslide on a natural slope by artificial rainfall. Landslides 1:211–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Okura Y, Kitahara H, Ochiai H, Sammori T, Kawanami A (2002) Landside fludization process by flume experiments. Eng Geol 66:65–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Olivares L, Damiano E, Greco R, Zeni L, Picarelli L, Minardo A, Guida A, Bernini R (2009) An instrumented flume to investigate the mechanics of rainfall-induced landslides in unsaturated granular soils. Geotech Test J 32(2):108–118Google Scholar
  66. Peng JB, Fan ZJ, Wu D, Zhuang JQ, Dai FC, Chen WW, Zhao C (2015) Heavy rainfall triggered loess–mudstone landslide and subsequent debris flow in Tianshui. China. Eng Geol 186(24):79–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Polemio M, Sdao F (1999) The role of rainfall in the landslide hazard: the case of the Avigliano urban area (Southern Apennines, Italy). Eng Geol 53(3–4):297–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rahardjo H, Lim TT, Chang MF, Fredlund DG (1995) Shear-strength characteristics of a residual soil. Can Geotech J 32(1):60–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ray R, Jacobs J, de Alba P (2010) Impacts of unsaturated zone soil moisture and groundwater table on slope instability. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 136(10):1448–1458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Reid ME, Iverson RM (1992) Gravity-driven groundwater flow and slope failure potential 2. Effects of slope morphology, material properties, and hydraulic heterogeneity. Water Resour Res 28:939–950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Richards LA (1931) Capillary conduction of liquids through porous mediums. Physics 1(5):318–333zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rozos D, Skilodimou HD, Loupasakis C, Bathrellos GD (2013) Application of the revised universal soil loss equation model on landslide prevention. An example from N. Euboea (Evia) Island, Greece. Environ Earth Sci 70(7):3255–3266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shi JS, Wu LZ, Wu SR, Li B, Wang T, Xin P (2016) Analysis of the causes of large-scale loess landslides in Baoji, China. Geomorphology 264:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Sorbino G, Nicotera MV (2013) Unsaturated soil mechanics in rainfall-induced flow landslides. Eng Geol 165:105–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Spence KJ, Guymer I (1997) Small-scale laboratory flowslides. Geotechnique 47:915–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Springman S, Kienzler P, Casini F, Askarinejad A (2009) Landslide triggering experiment in a steep forested slope in Switzerland. In: Proceedings of the 17th international conference on soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering: the academia and practice of geotechnical engineering 2, pp 1698–1701Google Scholar
  77. Springman S, Askarinejad A, Casini F, Friedel S, Kienzler P, Teysseire P, Thielen A (2012) Lessons learnt from field tests in some potentially unstable slopes in Switzerland. Acta Geotech Slov 1:5–29Google Scholar
  78. Tang HM, Yong R, Ez Eldin MAM (2016) Stability analysis of stratified rock slopes with spatially variable strength parameters: the case of Qianjiangping landslide. Bull Eng Geol Environ.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-016-0876-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tsai TL (2008) The influence of rainstorm pattern on shallow landslide. J Environ Geol 53(7):1563–1569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tsai TL (2011) Influences of soil water characteristic curve on rainfall-induced shallow landslides. Environ Earth Sci 64(2):449–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tsai TL, Chen HF (2010) Effects of degree of saturation on shallow landslides triggered by rainfall. Environ Earth Sci 59(6):1285–1295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tsai TL, Chiang SJ (2013) Modeling of layered infinite slope failure triggered by rainfall. Environ Earth Sci 68(5):1429–1434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tsai TL, Wang JK (2011) Examination of influences of rainfall patterns on shallow landslides due to dissipation of matric suction. Environ Earth Sci 63:65–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tsai TL, Yang JC (2006) Modeling of rainfall-triggered shallow landslide. Environ Geol 50(4):525–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tu XB, Kwong AKL, Dai FC, Tham LG, Min H (2009) Field monitoring of rainfall infiltration in a loess slope and analysis of failure mechanism of rainfall induced landslides. Eng Geol 105:134–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Van Asch ThWJ, Buma J, Van Beek LPH (1999) A view on some hydrological triggering systems in landslides. Geomorphology 30:25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. van Genuchten MY (1980) A closed form equation for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44:892–898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wang G, Sassa K (2001) Factors affecting rainfall-induced flowslides in laboratory flume tests. Géotechnique 51(7):587–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wang G, Sassa K (2003) Pore-pressure generation and movement of rainfall-induced landslides: effects of grain size and fine-particle content. Eng Geol 69:109–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wang F, Shibatab H (2007) Influence of soil permeability on rainfall-induced flowslides in laboratory flume tests. Can Geotech J 44(9):1128–1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wang LP, Zhang G (2014) Progressive failure behavior of pile-reinforced clay slopes under surface load conditions. Environ Earth Sci 71(12):5007–5016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wang HB, Zhou B, Wu SR, Shi JS (2011) Characteristic analysis of large-scale loess landslides: a case study in Baoji City of Loess Plateau of Northwest China. Nat Hazards Earth Sci 11:1829–1837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wang GH, Zhang DX, Furuya G, Yang J (2014a) Pore-pressure generation and fluidization in a loess landslide triggered by the 1920 Haiyuan earthquake, China: a case study. Eng Geol 174(23):36–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wang JJ, Liang JY, Zhang HP, Wu Y, Lin X (2014b) A loess landslide induced by excavation and rainfall. Landslides 11(1):141–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. White JA, Singham DI (2012) Slope stability assessment using stochastic rainfall simulation. Procedia Comput Sci 9:699–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. White DJ, Take WA, Bolton MD (2003) Soil deformation measurement using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and photogrammetry. Geotechnique 53:619–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wilkinson PL, Anderson MG, Lloyd DM (2000) An integrated hydrological model for rain-induced landslide prediction. Earth Surf Process Landf 27:1285–1297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wu W, Sidle RC (1995) A distributed slope stability model for steep forested basins. Water Resour Res 31(8):2097–2110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wu LZ, Huang RQ, Xu Q, Zhang LM, Li HL (2015) Analysis of physical testing of rainfall-induced soil slope failures. Environ Earth Sci 73(12):8519–8531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wu LZ, Zhang LM (2009) Analytical solution to 1D coupled water infiltration and deformation in unsaturated soils. Int J Numer Anal Meth Geomech 33(6):773–790zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wu LZ, Liu GG, Wang LC, Zhang LM, Li BE, Li B (2016) Numerical analysis of 1D coupled infiltration and deformation in layered unsaturated porous medium. Environ Earth Sci 75:761.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-016-5579-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wu LZ, Zhou Y, Sun P, Shi JS, Liu GG, Bai LY (2017) Laboratory characterization of rainfall-induced loess slope failure. CATENA 150:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Xu L, Qiao XJ, Wu CX, Iqbal J, Dai FC (2012) Causes of landslide recurrence in a loess platform with respect to hydrological processes. Nat Hazards 64:1657–1670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Xu L, Dai FC, Tu XB, Javed I, Woodard MJ, Jin YL, Tham LG (2013) Occurrence of landsliding on slopes where flow sliding had previously occurred: An investigation in a loess platform, North-west China. CATENA 104:195–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Yeh HF, Lee CH (2013) Soil water balance model for precipitation-induced shallow landslides. Environ Earth Sci 70(6):2691–2701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Yin YP, Cheng YL, Liang JT, Wang WP (2016) Heavy-rainfall-induced catastrophic rockslide-debris flow at Sanxicun, Dujiangyan, after the Wenchuan Ms 8.0 earthquake. Landslides 13(1):9–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Zhan LT, Ng CWW, Fredlund DG (2007) Field study of rainfall infiltration into a grassed unsaturated expansive soil slope. Can Geotech J 44:392–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Zhan TLT, Jia GW, Chen YM, Fredlund DG, Li H (2013) An analytical solution for rainfall infiltration into an unsaturated infinite slope and its application to slope stability analysis. Int J Numer Anal Meth Geomech 37(12):1737–1760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Zhang MS, Liu J (2010) Controlling factors of loess landslides in western China. Environ Earth Sci 59:1671–1680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Zhang LL, Zhang LM, Tang WH (2005) Rainfall-induced slope failure considering variability of soil properties. Geotechnique 55(2):183–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Zhang SL, Lövdahl L, Grip H, Tong YN (2007) Hydraulic properties of two loess soils in China measured by various field-scale and laboratory methods. CATENA 69(3):264–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Zhang LL, Zhang J, Zhang LM, Tang WH (2011a) Stability analysis of rainfall-induced slope failures: a review. P I Civil Eng-Geotec 164(5):299–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Zhang LL, Zhang J, Zhang LM, Tang WH (2011b) Stability analysis of rainfall-induced slope failures: a review. Proc ICE-Geotech Eng 164(5):299–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Zhang S, Zhang LM, Peng M, Zhang LL, Zhao HF, Chen HX (2012) Assessment of risks of loose landslide deposits formed by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Nat Hazard Earth Sys 12:1381–1392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zhang S, Zhang LM, Glade T (2014) Characteristics of earthquake- and rain-induced landslides near the epicenter of Wenchuan Earthquake. Eng Geol 175:58–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zhao HF, Zhang LM (2014) Instability of saturated and unsaturated coarse granular soils. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 140(1):25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zhou CB (2011) Modeling of coupled deformation, water flow and gas transport in soil slopes subjected to rain infiltration. Sci China-Technol Sci 54(10):2561–2575Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press  2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Environment and Civil EngineeringChengdu University of TechnologyChengduChina
  2. 2.Chengdu University of TechnologyChengduChina
  3. 3.School of Civil EngineeringBeijing Jiaotong UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations