Simulation models have been widely used to study and analyse complex real-world systems in the design of many modern products, such as vehicles, civil structures and medical devices (Zhou et al. 2016a, 2017). Various types of engineering tasks utilize simulation models, including design space exploration, design optimization, performance prediction, operational management, sensitivity analysis and uncertainty analysis. There are also various problems, such as model calibration and model parameter sensitivity analysis, related to enhancing the ability of simulation models to faithfully reproduce real-world systems (Razavi et al. 2012).
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