Adaptable Infrastructure—Civil

  • David G. CarmichaelEmail author
Part of the Management in the Built Environment book series (MABUEN)


Infrastructure over its lifetime needs to consider change, often because of external forces, in order to avoid obsolescence in any of its various forms—physical, economic, functional, technological, social, environmental and legal. Demographic, technological and environmental shifts would appear inevitable, but to an uncertain extent and with uncertain timing.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUNSW AustraliaSydneyAustralia

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