• Du HuynhEmail author
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Regional Science book series (BRIEFSREGION)


This chapter summaries the roles of the six factors. Master plans have a modest role in all five cities. Seoul and Shanghai have had the positive sides of the other five factors. Thus, since their countries’ reform, they have achieved success in becoming more developed and competitive. Jakarta and Ho Chi Minh City have had a mix of the other five four factors. Therefore, their achievements have been mixed and less impressive. However, Ho Chi Minh City’s development started three decades later; thus, it is about three decades behind Jakarta. Manila has faced all the negative aspects of all six factors. Therefore, it has moved from the most developed in the early 1960s to nearly the worst in recent times. Although its GDP per capita is higher than Ho Chi Minh City’s, its future seems not very bright because fundamental issues will not be easily solved in the foreseeable future.


Megacity Development strategy Public entrepreneurship Competitiveness 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fulbright University VietnamHo Chi MinhVietnam

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