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Immune Signaling and Autophagy Regulation

  • Fang Hua
  • Ke Li
  • Shuang Shang
  • Feng Wang
  • Zhuowei HuEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1206)

Abstract

Autophagy is one of the key degradation systems in organisms. Starvation and nutrient deprivation induce autophagy activation, providing energy and anabolic substances to maintain energy homeostasis. A variety of signals participate in the induction of autophagy, including endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, and activation of immune signals. Autophagy is closely related to immunity and inflammation. Autophagy-related gene mutations increase the risk of infectious diseases and malignancies. Autophagy can be regarded as an effector of the immune system to eliminate invading pathogens and is also involved in the immune system recognizing the invasion of pathogens. Autophagy plays important roles in regulating innate immunity and adaptive immunity. In terms of innate immunity, autophagy not only participates in the clearance of pathogens and cell debris after apoptosis but also plays a protective role against toxins, regulates cytokine production, and activates the inflammasome. In the adaptive immune response, autophagy plays an important regulatory role in thymic selection, T cell maturation, T cell polarization, T cell and B cell homeostasis, antigen processing, antigen presentation, and antibody response. On the other hand, autophagy is regulated by immunological and stress signals. The crosstalk between these signaling pathways helps maintain homeostasis and physiological functions. Dysfunction of these regulatory networks is the cause of several kinds of diseases.

Keywords

Autophagy Cytokines TLRs 

Abbreviations

AD

Acidic activation domain

ADAR1

dsRNA-specific adenosine deaminase

AICD

Activation-induced cell death

ALIS

Aggresome-like induced structures

APCs

Antigen presenting cells

BCR

B cell receptor

CARDs

Caspase recruitment domains

CLRs

C-type lectin receptors

CRD

Carbohydrate recognition domain

CTLA-4

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4

DAPK

Death-associated protein kinase

DAMPs

Damage-associated molecular patterns

DC

Dendritic cell

DD

Death domain

GBP

Guanylate-binding protein

GRP78

Glucose-regulated protein

HMGB1

High mobility group box 1

IPS-1

IFN-β-promoter stimulator 1

IRE1

Inositol-requiring enzyme 1

IRE1α

Inositol-requiring enzyme 1α

ITAM

Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif

JNK

c-Jun N-terminal kinase

LRR

Leucine-rich repeat

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

MD2

Myeloid differentiation factor 2

MHC

Major histocompatibility complex antigen

NLRs

NOD-like receptors

p38IP

p38 interacting protein

PAMPs

Pathogen-associated molecular patterns

PI3P

Phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate

PI3KC3

Class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SOCS

Suppressor of cytokine Signaling

TCGF

T cell growth factor

TCR

T cell receptor

TLRs

Toll-like receptors

TIR

Toll-Interleukin 1 Receptor

TRAF6

Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor alpha

TGF-β

Transforming growth factor beta

UPR

Unfolded protein response

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Copyright information

© Science Press and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fang Hua
    • 1
  • Ke Li
    • 2
  • Shuang Shang
    • 1
  • Feng Wang
    • 1
  • Zhuowei Hu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural MedicinesInstitute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical CollegeBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.NHC Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of AntibioticsInstitute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical CollegeBeijingChina

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